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Lecture 2

Pol Sci Lecture 2 Modern Democracy.pdf

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL101Y1
Professor
Jeffrey Kopstein
Semester
Fall

Description
PolSciLecture2 : Modern Democracy September-17-12 12:09PM • Moderndemocracy-veryfragile,imperfect • ApartheidinSouthAfrica-wasoneofthemost inhumanepoliticalsystem • Inhumaneact-whitescanthaverelationsw/blacks • Passlaw-black southAfrican'shavetohavea passto go intoawhitepart ofthecountry • Gov'tallowedtherelocationofblacks • Thiscausedmassivesegregation inmanyaspects -political,economic,social • Existeduntil1994- finallyallowedblackstoparticipateinsociety • Democracy-stillverynew • Wecan not takeitforgranted Democracy'sAppeal • SamuelHuntington's-thenewway • Democracieswould increasedrasticallyfrom1975to 114 democracy'sin 2010 • Postwar- modernization • Deomcracybecomesmoreappealingw/modernization • 3points: • Democracy'svirtue • Fragility • Andprocess Democracy'sVirtue • Hasappealb/cof virtues • Polyarchy-citizenship-peoplearegiventhepower • Candidatesmustbeabletocompeteforvote • Democracyhasbeenabletorejecttraditionalformsoforder • Thecentralityofparticipation-centralvirtue • Everyonehasasay -we allhavetheabilitytoparticipate • Allofthedecisionsmadearemadebyeveryone: • TheVirtues: • Liberty-weallhavefreedoms,expressedasrights -wehavetherightto disagree • Equality-everyonehasequalityw.r.t.Thepoliticalsphere -weareallpoliticallyequal • Ex:everyonehasonevote -richorpoor,man orwoman • ModernLiberalism-isabouttheindividual -weparticipateasequalindividuals • RuleofLaw- liberty&equalityareprotectedbytheruleoflaw • Everythingisgovernedbyrules,suchastheconstitution • Pluralism-asindividual's,weliveinapluralisticsociety -wehaveavarietyofideas • Democracy=compromise -weneedit • Institutionalizeduncertainty***-elections-itisabout theabilitytoallowgovernmentsintopowerand outofpower • Democracy=winnersandlosers,butthelosersarenotobliterated • Theyareallowedtocomebackintopower- thisuncertaintyiswhatmakesdemocracysovirtue Democracy'sFragility • Democracy=fragile • Forthegainsof democracy, therehavealsobeendemocraticbreakdowns • Eventhoughdemocracyisappealing,itcan alsobetakenaway veryeasily • Democracy=acontinualprocess Democracyasa Process • Righttovoteisnot anaturalright • FoundingofCanada-rightto votewas onlygiventolandowningmen -11% of thewholepopcould vote • 1898 - 24 % allowedtovote -allmen • 1918 - Womenallowedtovote • 1960 - StatusIndianswereallowedtovote • 1963 - minoritieswereallowedtovote • Democracyisalwaysanongoingprocess • Democracyisalwaysanongoingprocess • Democracy'sdontjustappear • 3importantdynamics: • Foundation • Thechoiceofdemocracy • ThechoiceswemaketomakeDemocracywork Howdowebuildthefoundation? • TheModernizationTheory -wasatheoryofhowcountriesmodernized • Economic,socialand finallypol.Modernization • Economictransformation-hadtotransformyoureconomy -becomemoreindustrialized • Economicdevelopment-theindustrializationwouldbringaneconomywherepeoplebecomewage earners • Modernizationleadstogrowth • DemographicChange -largemiddleclass-urbanizationtocauseeconomytogrow -familysize decreases-increaseinwomenintheeconomy • SocialChange-modernizationofsocieties=literatesocietiesw/education,healthcare,whichleadsto thesecularizationofsociety • DemandforPoliticalrights-these basisforthefoundationleadstothedemandofpoliticalrights,rule oflaw,andwantto havemore ofasay •
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