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Lecture

Experiments in Democracy.pdf

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL101Y1
Professor
Jeffrey Kopstein
Semester
Fall

Description
Experimentsin Democracy November-05-12 12:09PM PeterJohnLewin-Guestspeakerw/Kopstienasprof • Polisciisspecialbecauseofitssetoftools • LewinisgoingtotalkaboutexperimentalmethodsinPOL ○ Fisherexacttest-a wayof predictingthings • Whyareexperimentsimportant? ○ Wecan learnfromexperiments ○ Wecan testpeoplesclaims ○ Treatmentandcontrol ○ Randomization ○ Measurement • Gameplan  Whatare experimentsandwhydowedothem  Thetypesofexperiments □ Federalismandrepresentation □ Clientsandvoting □ Facialcompetenceandvoting  Completingexperimentsforextramarks • DoesFederalismleadtobetterrepresentation ○ Arevoterssuperficial DefiningExperiments • Experimentshaveeithertreatmentsorconditions ○ Hasto havea stimuli/somepeopleareexposedtothestimuliwhileothersarenot • Assignmenttotreatmenthastoberandomandknown • Treatments ○ Stimulus-hasaneffectonan outcome ○ Appliedtosomepeopleandnotothers,orappliedatsometimesandnotothers  Medicalexperiment:peoplegeteitherplacebopillwhileothersgetactualmedicine • RandomAssignment ○ Somesubjectsmustbeputintotreatmentwhileothersareputintocontrol  Ithas to bedonerandomly • Ex- postmeasurementsofresults ○ Foran experimenttobecomplete,weneedtomeasuretheresults • Kopsteinexample: ○ Treatment:wearingatieor not ○ Randomassignment:flippingacoinbeforeclasstoseeifhewillwearatie ○ Measurement:examresultsincorrelationtotheeffectofhimwearingatie • Allofthesecomponentsarenecessaryforexperimentsandtomakecausalinferences • Causaleffect ○ Differenceinoutcomesbetweentwostatesoftheworld,treatedvsuntreated ○ Ti=Yi(treated)-Yi(Untreated) ○ Ti=Yi(Classwithatie) - Yi(Classwithnotie) ◊ However,thisisproblematicb/cwecannotobservesubjectsinboth treatedanduntreatedstates ◊ Thisisthefundamentalproblemofcausalinferences ► Randomassignmentovercomesthecausalinferences,asyoucan observeboth • Wedoexperimentsb/cwewanttomakecausalinferencesandwelearnaboutimportantthings TypesofExperiments • Fieldexperiments ○ Whatcan you doify
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