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POL101Y1 Reading Summary Compilation.doc

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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

POL101Y1 Reading Summary Compilation Ordered in chronological order for your convenience. Yeye. Much love and appreciation for all submissions. Hope that this document helps everyone greatly. Good luck with your exams and have a good winter break! The Liberty of the Ancients Compared with that of the Modern Week 1 - Reading Notes September 21 , 2011 Emma Murray Introduction Comparing the liberty the ancients valued so much and the liberty that is precious to modern nations Failure to distinguish between the two resulted in many evils during the days of revolution France was force to enjoy benefits it didnt want and denied the ones it did Peace and freedom could only be found through representative government Rep. Gov. was totally unknown to the people of antiquity History Many claim traces of Rep.Gov. Among some ancient peoples ex. Gauls, Sparta Sparta What Sparta had was a monastic aristocracy The power of the kings was limited by the magistrates, not by elected officials Magistrates were nominated by the people there were only 5 of them Their authority was as much religious as political, they took part in the actual administration of Gov. i.e. in the executive power Their power far from being simply a barrier against tyranny sometimes because itself intolerable tyranny True of all the magistrates, even the elected ones Gauls The regime of the Gauls quite resembled one that a certain party would like to restore to us(1) Priests enjoyed unlimited power The military class the nobility- had arrogant and oppressive privileges People had no rights and no safe guards Ancient Times The mission of the tribunes in Rome was a representative one up to a point They acted on behalf of the plebeians who were reduced to harsh by the oligarchy when it overthrew the kings People still exercised considerable political rights directly they met to vote on laws and judge nobles who had been accused of wrong doing Rome only had traces of the representative system Representative Government Its a modern discovery The condition of the human race in antiquity made it impossible for such a institution to exist Ancient peoples did not feel the need for it or appreciate its advantages Their social organization led them to want a kind of freedom totally different what representative government grants Modern Liberty What is modern liberty? (That of the English, French etc.) I. The right to be subjected only to the laws, and not to be arrested, imprisoned, put to death or maltreated in any way by decision of one or more individuals; II. The right of each person to express his opinion, choose a profession and practice it, dispose of his own property and even to misuse it; III. The right to come and go without permission, and without explaining what one is doing or why; IV. The right of each person to associate with other individuals whether to discuss their interests, or to join in worship, or simply to ll the time in any way that suits his fancy; and V. Each persons right to have some inuence on the administration of the governmentby electing all or some of the ofcials, or through representations, petitions, or demands that the authorities are more or less obliged to take into consideration. Moderns regard the right to choose religion, to the ancients this would seem criminal and sacrilegious The smallest of modern states are incomparably larger than the largest of ancient times There is a mass of humans beings that have the same basic nature with different names and social organization War proceeded commerce- 2 ways of achieving same end Commerce is a attempt to get through mutual agreement something that one has given up acquiring through violence Strong would never resort to commerce War is impulse, commerce is calculation; commerce replaces war War costs more than its worth- no longer slaves all work must be done by free men therefore they no longer have time to participate in the political system as intensely as previous societies The bigger a country is the smaller the importance allotted to each individual The abolition of slavery= less time for leisure/ political involvement The daily discussions, secret planning sessions would be fatiguing to the moderns individuals are occupied by hopes and enterprise- not wanting to be side tracked Commerce inspires men an intense love of individual independence, supplies needs, satisfies desires without government interference Every time governments do buiss. For us they do it worse at greater cost Can hardly see indiv. Influence exercise of political rights = only part of ancient benefits Increase of commerce and communication has multiplied the means of personal happiness Main aim to be secure in private benefits, liberty = the name for guarantees accorded by institutions of these benefits Indiv. Indep. (I.I) First need of moderns should never be asked to make sacrifices in order to establish political liberty none of the institutions that hindered (I.I) are admissible in modern times People have rights, people cant be torn from whats important to them, ex father and son Modern mouers are more complex and subtle, would be distorted it you tried to define them only way to reach and judge them is through public opinion Government can do things to people arbitrarily, there would be a public out cry Moderns want to enjoy our rights, develop our own powers, watch over the development of these powers in our children All thats need for the authoritys is general means of instruction ex. Schools and teachers salaries, provide us with highways but dont tell us which route to take (10) I.I = Pol freedom in modern times Ancient Liberty You find almost none of the benefits (Jouissances) as parts of the liberty of the moderns Jouissance of liberty, or whatever and there it means enjoyment. Jouissance of our independence is just having independence and finding it satisfactory to have it All private actions were strictly monitored No room was allowed for individual independence of options, choice work or especially religion The authority of the collective interposed itself and obstructed the will of individuals Authority intervened in domestic relations, the eye of the censors looked into family life The laws regulate mouers (customs, habits, way of life) and as mouers touch on everything, nothing that laws dont regulate A individual is nearly always sovereign in public affairs but a slave in all his private relations Citizens decide on peace and war As a member of the public a individual can interrogate, dismiss, condemn, impoverish, exiles or sentence to death his magistrates and superiors As a subject of the collective body a individual can be deprived of their status, stripped of their privileges, banished, put to death, by the free choice of the whole of which he apart Men were nothing but machines The ancient republics were geographically small, smaller than the smallest of modern states, this made the bellicose*, often attacking and being attacked by their neighbors War was the price the free states of antiquity had to pay to purchase security or independence Manuel labor and even the business activities were entrusted to people in chains Each people constituted a isolated family; enemies with other families People rarely trading, if they were they were a exception distant navigation was dangerous Consisted in carrying out collectively but directly many parts of the all over functions of government coming together in the public square to:
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