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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

COMMUNISM AND FASCISM Liberalism and its Crisis  Long 19 century is peak of liberalism’s appeal. o Ran from the French Revolution in 1789—WW1 1914 o If a country wanted to become Liberal it would become liberal  Liberal institutions develop even where social basis is not obviously present Liberalism and the working class  Extension of the franchise—extensions of the right to vote  Rise of Social Democracy in Western Europe. Evolutionary socialism and reconciliation with liberal democracy: electoral socialism o Gradually over time the violent revolutionary mode of Marxism gets pushed aside STORY OF THE WEST: People wanting change—government promises change What about the revolution? Lenin—argues that revolutionary socialism even if it’s good cannot work in Russia because there is no parliament  You can’t openly organize as a party the party has to be conspiratorial o Underground movement  Workers only capable of ―trade union consciousness‖—workers want to work less hours for more money o Left on their own they will never form a revolution this is why they need outside motivation from outside PARTIES--LEADERSHIP  MARXS argues that they are capable of revolution on their own Marxism and Economic Backwardness  MARXS argues that revolution will only happen when capitalism is at its most advanced  Russia—one of the most backward countries in Europe  Working class revolution, with small working class—REVOLUTION NOT POSSIBLE  1917: World War and REVOLUTION o Military in poor countries used mostly for internal issues, domestic up keep o With the war, military is taken away, TSAR weakened—revolution takes place  Leninsts start the OCTOBER REVOLUTION World Revolution or World Power  World revolution FAILS to materialize  From Insurrection to statism—supporting communism means supporting the Soviet Union  But what is communism or socialism? What will this kind of economy look like:  Lenin: ―Communism=Soviet Power + Electrification.‖ (council power + metaphor for modernization) Stalinism: Terror and progress  Lenin leaves a testimony—Stalin rude and impulsive so he can’t be a leader Industrialization  They had to industrialize FAST  5 YEAR PLAN forced industrialization Collectivization  By 1928—forced all peasants into collective farms where they would work for a wage Results: Terror and Secret Police, Purges and Famine  First five year plan was successful  Millions and millions of people died—TREMENDOUS COST o Famines resulted because of purges of grains Stalin had begun to become PARANOID—he wanted to be the great party leader but he knew that THEY knew that he was no LENIN  Fro
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