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Political Science
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Jeffrey Kopstein

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First Semester September-24-12 9:14 PM September-10-12 8:09 PM Democracy and war Question Is the world becoming more peaceful and democratic? Francis Fukuyama Looked through the lens of Hegel for thought on the fall of the Berlin Wall during the summer of 1989 Hegel Witnessed moments in history, realized what he was witnessing "chopping bench of history" Clash of ideas sum up human history Human consciousness History of philosophy Individuals have rarely ever come up with their own ideas, people have always been stealing from the past great philosophers Industry, economy, religious practises = material manifestation of human ideas Big and significant human consciousness ideas Ancient societies Plato and Aristotle Medieval societies (kingships and serfs) Thomas Aquinas and the Church Liberal democracies Hegel Battle of Jena - saw what he believed was the birth of 'liberty, equality and fraternity' History is the history of great ideas, of ideas surpassing each other Should there be no new idea to challenge the new idea then history is over Fukuyama Hegel was correct in his thinking, but off in years Instead of 1806, it was 1989 Global war against Nazis (WWII) Challengers to liberal democracy defeated in realm of ideas Barely exist in the consciousness of western societies Nazism, communism, fascism World of peace, trade and democracy No wars f big ideas hence liberalism has won Threats to stability appear in big ideological challengers A distinct lack of such challengers When no one is willing to sacrifice their life for an idea, that idea dies When no one is willing to sacrifice their life for an new idea, one other that the established one, history is over. Clash of Civilizations Huntinton's Arguments Fukuyama was only looking through the eyes of the victor Post-communism world brought along tons of speculation on the future of the world The school of thought that declares "History is over because liberalism won = Western Arrogance" Huntington offers a more pessimistic world view Fukuyama offers a narrow reading of world history Geographically limited Claim that war is over suggests single minded view Liberal peace and prosperity are illusory Inequality Contested citizenship Exclusion Fukuyama describes end of history in the west, the end of western conflict Western democracies do not go to war against each, work with each and are economically dependant Fukuyama = idealist, liberal democracy has taken root globally Universalist civilization Huntington = realist, our world is not an universalist civilization All is not resolved Alternative world order " A universal civilization commonly bears proof of a universal power" We do not have a universal power We the west cannot rest on easy arrogance lest we lose our way of life "A civilization is thus the highest cultural grouping of people and the broadest level of cultural identity people have short of that which distinguishes humans from other species " Why do people and countries behave the way the do? Differences (real or imagined) are conducive to conflict Perceived differences in cultural groups India (caste), U.S (racial), China(racial/religious), Canada (aboriginal) Clash of interest = conflict Self preservation Autonomy Kinship = conflict All sources of future conflicts in the world, in part due to western arrogance in recognizing that history is not over Fukuyama believes : West > The Rest Huntington believes : West vs. The Rest Lecture Notes Page 2Modern democracy September-23-12 4:05 PM Democracy in south Africa 1949 - immorality act - interracial sexual relations illegal 1950 - group areas act - physical segregation based on race 1952 - pass law - all blacks must have a pass for when in designated white area 1954 - settlement laws - no black settlements in Johannesburg System of political, economic, and physical segregation existed until 1994 Attractiveness of democracy aka democracy is new Third wave of democratic transitions in 1920 Reasons Tremendous economic growth WWII lessons - autocracy/authoritarian regimes = war Modernization Democracy as a form of order/institution = more appealing Natural progression Democracy's Virtue " In democratic states, for example, the people is sovereign: in oligarchies, on the other hand, the few have that position; and this difference of the sovereign bodies is the reason why we say that the two types of constitution differas we may equally apply the same reasoning to other types besides these. " Aristotle - Politics "Polyarchy is a political order distinguished at the most general level by two broad characteristics: Citizenship is extendedto a relatively high proportion of adults, and the rights of citizenships include opportunity to oppose and vote out the highest officials in the government" Robert Danl - On Polyarchy "A 20th-century political system [is considered] democratic to the extent that its most powerful collective decisions makers are selected through fair, honest and periodic elections in which candidates feely compete for votes and in which virtually all the adult population is eligible to vote" Samuel Huntington - On Democracy Liberty Freedoms and rights Freedom of speech, thought, freedom to dissent, to assemble peacefully Equality In the political sphere, all individuals are politically equal 1 person = 1 vote Modern liberalism is about the individual protected by rule of law Rule of law Means by which we do/play politics and/or make decisions Constitutions = rule of law Constitutions are the rule of law rather than the rule of man Pluralism Sum of liberty, equality, rule of law Multiple interests/ideas/ideologies Democracy is about compromises within pluralism Institutionalized uncertainty Ability to elect representatives that represent us Elections allow us to vote governments out If you're voted out, you are still free to contest it later in another election, to maybe win again Democracy'
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