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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 10-01-12

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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

The Rise of the West and Marxism Origins of Modern World Economy • Twin "Revolutions" 15th-19th century • Agricultural and industrial revolution Industrial Revolution • Originates in late 18th century England • More appropriately designated as a revolution • Amount of iron processed into steel in English factories • Produced large changes in domestic consumption Consequences • Luxuries to decencies, decencies to necessities • Distribution highly uneven but now creation of the middle class that had risen from manual labour to professional or entrepreneurial status Social Results 1.The Capacity to produce surplus 2.Increasing complexity of division of labour 3.New forms of social consciousness Political Consequences • Demise of Royal Absolutism • Victory of parliament over kings • Selection of leaders by election • Rise of political parties • Universal rights without reference to class • Need to accommodate new groups within politics Marx • Asked how to analyze society? • What does one look for first • Queens and Kings? • Dominant Ideas? • The food they eat, alcohol they drink Marx and Materialism • Feuerbach and Critique of German idealism (Hegel) • Materialism: What is god ◦ The good part taken out of us and rules over us ◦ Man created god • Marx says this does not go far enough • Why do we need religion? Injustice. You met go to the material causes Critique of Hegel: Historical Materialism • Hegel: Consciousness creates society • Marx disagrees: Consciousness does not create being, other way around Materialist conception of history • Humans make there own means of survival • Work is natural, humans are creative • History is the history of class struggle and forms of domination History is a struggle, but material struggle • Classes own or do not own the means of production • Culture, ideas, art, law morality, religion are all determined by mode of production "Superstructure" Critique of Hegel: Historical Materialism • Slave, Feudal, Capitalist, Socialist/Communist Modes of production • Histo
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