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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 10-15-12.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

Communism and Fascism 2012-10-15 2:20 PM Intro - Institutional Standardizations in Communist countries - Fascism and Communism were ideologies of salvation - They wanted to perfect the human condition - We live in an incremental society - The human toll these ideologies exacted instituted the basis on the human rights now Liberalism and its Crisis th - Long 19 century is peak of Liberalism’s appeal - Liberal institutions develop even where basis is not obviously present - Parliaments in non-democratic countries are faked - They go through the motions of liberal democracy but it actually does not happen Liberalism and the Working Class - Extension of the franchise - Rise of Social Democracy in Western Europe. Evolutionary socialism and reconciliation with liberal democracy: electoral system - Socialism turns from being a revolutionary to an evolutionary idea What about the revolution? - Lenin: revolutionary movement under conditions of authoritarianism – Russia - It was a fulltime revolutionary activity - You did not occupy a role, you became a status - The only way of revolutionizing was along conspiratorial professional lines - Workers only capable of “trade union consciousness” - If there is to be a revolution, it must come from outside of the working class - Need a “party” to bring them the truth: what this means for Marxism - If there was a seizure of power by a minority in the name of the majority Marxism and Economic Backwardness - Russia – one of the most backward countries in Europe - Working class revolution, with small working class - 1917: World War and Revolution - Marx was exiled but he did not give up on revolution - He had a small revolutionary party called the Bolsheviks - Germany helped Lenin to get back to Russia because he said it would end the war - He returns to Russia while it is in complete chaos, czar stepping down, many parties - October 1917, Lenin and the Bolsheviks size power in the October revolution World Revolution or World Power - Lenin believed he could cause a revolution in Germany too - The military wipes out the Bolshevik parties in Germany - Huge civil war in Russia - World revolution fails to materialize - From insurrectionism to Stalinism – supporting communism meant supporting the Soviet Union - Transforms from a revolution of ideology to revolution of state interest - But what is communism or socialism? What will this kind of economy look like: - Lenin: “Communism = Soviet power + electrification” which is everything modern - But this does not solve the problem Stalinism: terror and progress - Industrialization - Collectivization - Terror and Street police - Purges and Famine - If Russia was to make it, they had to industrialize as rapidly as possible to make a military - People’s Commissariat for People’s Affairs – Secret Police - He understands people might oppose him so he arrests the entire old guard - Huge amounts of force are used within the society - Sta
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