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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Clifford Orwin

Pol200- Political theory  Post moderns, think their understanding of progress is better than Lecture 1- September 13/12 moderns- lost faith in modern progress (science, technology, Republic political institutions)- Post modernist depends on a radicalization  Authority of modernity- what all these other authorities had in of modern thought (modern thought one step further)- accepts the common- even Che Guevera was a representative of modernity- authority of modernity in a negative sense (to have refuted and All 60s rebels recognized themselves as modern- criticized rest of defeated all previous ways of thought)- New skepticism (modern the society for not being modern- what does it mean to undermine skepticism carried one step further) authority? It means undermining the underlying faith in modernity  Questioning Post modernity as much as we question modernity- which is faith in progress- progress in understanding Modernity has its costs, balances off- the gains are worth the costs  Modernity is a process- modernity is a moving target- the faith that  Basic fact today is that we are satisfied with modernity but do not further is always better- what we lost and we continue to lose pales grasp with the ideas of it. beside of what have gained and what we continue to gain with  EG. Post- modern architecture. modernity- this is the faith that we will question and with it  Builds functional buildings yet reverses the modern style. question the faith of modernity  Left in Suspension  Not assuming that modernity is wrong- suggesting that we raise the question of modernity  Post- Modern is nervous about modernity and questions itself.  Carry on with modernity without really believing in it: Irony.  Instead of taking modernity for granted, we will try to gain some  Is it possible that past thinkers understood more than the modern? critical distance from modernity with the help of ancient thinkers  Yes.  First study question: It is not modernity but rather post modernity  Free us from modern prejudice - Instead of thinking modernity for that is the hot talk in universities. What is postmodern? Why do granted people today call themselves post -modern? Discontent with modernity- Nervous about modernity to have lost confidence in it.  Marxism lives on in a few countries by repression  Political modernity: liberalism (liberal democracy as a way of To want to distance yourself of modernity somehow without life) and Marxism- Irony Marxist style- The Cold War is over and having a real notion of anything else- To pretend that it‟s a virtue our side (liberal democracy) had won to not believing that there is a real foundation or argument for what  End of history thesis: the world will shift to a democratic idea they are carrying (modern way of life)  Post modernity: represents a loss of faith in a specific truth- the  Modern global economy is fragile and under challenge truth that modernity has taken a stand. That is why it can be  Mass media under strain as well  Liberal democratic west: we are cynical about our institutions understood as a loss in faith in modernity. and our leaders and no longer confident that our way is THE way.  There is a reason why they are called post modern and don‟t go The mass media appears to be as much of curse than a blessing- any futher in creating a new title. It‟s a loss in faith, not an Global environmental crisis- The continuous treat of nuclear war- advancement in faith.  A twilight of modernity genetic engineering- We crave for the progress of science and fear it  Presume and rests on the authority of modernity  Appeal of malignant fundamentalism  If you have lost faith in modernity, there is nothing else you can  This recoil against modernity doesn‟t confine to Islamic societies- have faith in it is among Buddhist, Jews…  Vanquishes all modern as well as pre modern ideas and faith The Republic: What is justice Imitation of that activity of conversation is how Plato presents it.  First rule of reading Plato is to avoid patronizing- consider the Defines the dialogue is the exchange of views. Plato the author hidden possibility that exactly where he disagrees with us, is where he‟s in the world of dialogue in which he presents his ideas. right  Weary of his theory due to the fate of Socrates who was put to  We approach different kinds of books with different expectations death by Athenians  What to we call the kind of work that Plato wrote: Dialogue  When Plato conveys not a view but a collection of ideas. From (conversation between two or more people)- written or literally Plato's point of view, there is no authoritative take on justice. rendition of an oral form- what defines a dialogue is an exchange  Differing viewpoints on Justice- they may all be correct. of differing views (argument between or among different people) Interacting of human types of the question is a crucial question.  Plato only wrote dialogues none of which he himself is a character-  Different types of human beings have different contributions to the wants you to have a dialogue with yourself and not him just idea- therefore one much put all the pieces together to see the full spouting information to us- we have to participate picture of justice.  There are alternative ways of saying anything- rather than  Social truth emerged from the social exchange of ideas of truth. presenting his own thoughts, he presents us with alternative  No given character is Plato's voice- they all are. understandings of the matter under discussion- many views of the  Understand the characters and the clash, and you will understand world – understanding of the world would be impoverished if it the world Plato presents. The whole of the world is the expression. was not …  He never shows what he knows it is- Socrates believed he knew Socrates makes many characters puzzled and angry. nothing therefore, Plato could say he knew nothing- never speaks The truth lies within the interaction. Implied by Plato's use of the in his own names- shows characters who are drastically different dialogue form. from one another- might not provide an answer Many features of life in 5th century Athens.  Try to avoid being reverential towards Socrates- we would not be  Athens was the most powerful. Democracy. able to understand the Republic if we ignore other characters  Only men were citizens. Others were slaves or women.  Presentation of the human world as the interplay of different  Plato is not writing about the 5th century beings, he's writing about characters- it takes all kinds to make the human world- what help human beings behind the history. to understand the human world is to understand these different  The dialogue is about us characters- Plato shows us an interaction among characters who  Humanity vs Society each have questions that us human beings face (what is justice?)  Many helpful notes in the book.  Translation and interpretive essay mark the importance of the  Beginning of the dialogue matters- because everything in a characters dialogue matters Political philosophy  Company of Socrates- Glaucon (Plato‟s brother) – Some argue that  Articulates the question of justice/the problem of justice  Makes the question/problem come alive his brothers represent Plato himself  Socrates and Glaucon intended to spend the day together- not plan  Doesn't provide the answer to spend it with the other characters- they cant refuse the others‟  Dialogue- a conversation between two people. invitation without causing problems- they bow to the will of  Speaking among or between people majority  This whole series of events achieves great significance when you consider what is the institution for which that city is most notorious- Beginning of the Dialogue which demonstrates the  Justice is somehow selfless while Eros is selfish weakness of the philosopher kings- defeat of the reason world-  Young age: Eros won over instead of a conversation with Glaucon alone, he has to attend a  Old age: justice wins over, fears that his youth led him to not being conversation with a large group of people- setting of the Dialogue just and tries to make up for lost time is the port of the city (Piraeus)  Cephalus enjoys being wealthy because he can pay off his debts-  They end up spending the day with the other characters and bow to repaying gods and men- now that he‟s old, he is full of terror about the will of the majority not because it is wise or just but because the tales he heard about gods and punishments- gnawing fear of they cannot overpower the majority. Socrates characterizes the what lies beyond death decision politically  Socrates questions this tolerance as credited to his wealth  Republic begins with the weakness of reason in political life  Cephalus doesn‟t deny it. He admits that money is necessary to  What is the Piraeus like? Interface between ideas help old age. It is necessary but sufficient as you still need good  Cephalus „ house- Cephalus is the unquestioned head of his family- character what he says goes- sits in the center of the household having just  Socrates ask Cephalus about the greatest benefit of wealth: performed a sacrifice for the ancient gods that all Greeks 1) Due to having wealth, he could be a just man and not steal or recognize- there is a difference between the inside of the house and the outside world – His home is the island of tradition during an cheat 2) Money enables justice era of change. Cephalus is happy to see Socrates 3) You can make amends for faults from youth as well as gods  Old age is only moderately troublesome- nostalgia for the loss of 4) Slightly ashamed to admit it but now that he is old, he fears the his youth‟s pleasures stories of the after life  Cephalus believes that he and Socrates enjoy talking for the same  Initial presentation of justice: justice is a burden- not something reasons. However, their reasons for enjoying speech are which they naturally perceive as good for them- practiced under completely different. Cephalus is old and can no longer enjoy duress- practice justice which is itself burdensome and in that physical pleasures; therefore his love for conversation has sense evil to avoid evils that you would receive from gods- without increased. Those who can do, those who cant do it any longer- talk the gods, justice would make no sense- Cephalus fears that he has about it. gotten away with injustices (he fears he will be punished by the  However, Socrates is not old, yet he already spends his time gods). talking- for him talking is a way of life  Socrates takes out the Gods from from the equation of justice  This arises the first question that Socrates asks Cephalus which is which is contrary to why everybody practices justice how it feels to be old?  Does justice make sense for human beings?  What is justice?  Cephalus believes that he shows himself in a good light by the act  Socrates refutation that he tolerates old age as well as he does. He thinks it shows he  Fear of punishment by the gods is ignored by Socrates in his has a good characters as he does not complain definition of justice  Eros (sexual love or desire) is the most important theme in the  Socrates‟ objection to Cephalus is challenging the society itself Republic  We expect the practice of justice to be beneficial to others not  Ambiguity of loss of Eros- it is not sweet, but moderately harmful troublesome  We don‟t give the truth to everybody  It is as much a dialogue about eros as it is about justice  Longing and justice  All laws, respect of others and private property becomes  Polemarchus understands justice as selfless loyalty and without conditional on other things- if you state the principle on those realizing it, he expects a return for it terms you see that justice requires discernment-  Polemarchus doesn‟t restore gods to the conversation  What is most people and not just madmen not make good use of  His correction is to reinterpret what is owed as the fitting their property and their truth: then not only justice not require us to  Reinterprets the person who something is owed as a friend give them these things but to withhold it from them- justice is  Friends owe it to friends to do them good and nothing bad always conditional on doing good things- cant practice it unless  Justice as the fitting you know what is good  So far, friends owe it to friends to do them some good and nothing  None of us really accept law or convention as a sufficient basis for justice bad  Our dealing with enemies: to them we have to do bad  New principle, profoundly subversive principle- what if the law  Friends: good – Enemies: ill from us does the bad job of distributing the truth and property  We help those who help us and hinder those who hinder us  Polemarchus comes to the defense of Cephalus and gives him an honorable way to leave the conversation- selfless or self- interested  He begins to see the art or craft that is identified with justice act? This will become the central issue between Socrates and  Art as in tradesmen and not artist  Realm of useful rather than the fine Polemarchus- extent of which we understand justice as selfish or  We don‟t usually think of justice as an art self interested  Why an art? Justice should accomplish something that is to give Lecture 2- September 20, 12  Significance of Socrtes objection to Cephalus what is fitting for something  The whole of the subsequent comes from this objection  To give or do what is fitting requires some form of knowledge  Implicitly Cephalus understood justice as telling the truth and  Justice must be some form of knowledge and therefore, the just man must be an artisan returning to people what is owed to them  Does it make sense?  Cephalus‟ understanding of justice is ordinary  We expect our practice of justice to be helpful to others not  So what about the just man? What is his domain? What does he harmful provide the fitting for?  Justice is telling the truth and returning to one what is owed except  Polemarchus: friends and enemies give the template for what is fitting when it might be harmful to that person  Socrates: this does not make sense because what your friend needs  This means that justice becomes depended on something else is something particular, what he needs is not the just man but  Socrates: what if most people and not just mad men make bad use of truth or property? something particular- there is always something more fitting than  It‟s not small thing, to know what is truly good for human being justice to provide to a friend  332e- Polemarchus: specific domain in which the relevant art is the and our self art of justice? War is the specific domain that calls for justice  If we don‟t know what is good for us and hence cant make good  Why does he believe war is the specific domain? War seems to be use of our property, does…  Do you think it‟s a coincidence that the best city that would come the perfect way to help a friend and harm an enemy out of this conversation entails a …  “All for one, and one for all”  There‟s nothing random about Polemarchus‟ answer- it is revealing  Cephalus retreats to his traditions, giving sacrifice for the same and powerful but is it adequate? gods that Socrates has put out of conversation  Problem with Polemarchus‟ argument: there is an art war, at a time  Next stage of the argument: do you know who your friends are? of war, a general or soldier would be more fitting than a just man-  Seeing who your friends really are also in war time, you don‟t necessarily do just things  If the person who you harm is actually a good man, then harming  Socrates: for what is justice is useful in peacetime? Polemarchus him would be injustice answer that justice would be useful in peacetime for contracts and  The man who seems to be good and truly is good is a friend while businesses the person who seems bad and is bad must be harm  Socrates: every use of money and business, requires an expertise-  Two problems: therefore, business consultants are not really experts in justice 1) Who is a really good person versus a person who seems good?  In time of peace, when we need something guarded or kept safe, do Polemarchus, a person who is loyal- Socrates‟ understanding of we turn to the just man? You turn to a security agent a good human being is further from ordinary things and what it  There is an art of guarding or keeping something seems on the surface  If justice is not an art, then it‟s not up to the task of guarding 2) See recording anymore than it is up to the task of war...  Polemarchus‟ version of justice radiates from him- justified in  Inability to find the art of justice- find the domain or situation helping his friends and harming his enemies where justice is the greatest art  Would make justice self centered  For the sake of the argument, Socrates proceeds with the notion  Just man would never harm anyone that justice is identical with the art of guarding, the problem: if  Virtue of human being is justice to harm a human being justice was identical with the art of guarding, it could also be would mean to make him more unjust identical with the art of stealing because art is an form of  Could one make someone unjust through the practice of justice knowledge and it is neutral- it could serve both ways  The just person must never harm anyone  Conclusion (334a-b)- the just man as it seems comes to light as a Lecture 3- September 27,12 form of robber…certain art of stealing  Art of craft or expertise used by Socrates as the model of expert  Polemarchus cant refute Socrates but still believes that justice is knowledge – will come throughout the book- the city of speech helping friends and harming enemies itself is used in a technical fashion as part of a dialectic in order to  You cant refute Socrates – you feel like you have been had define justice through words  Justice as an art: that art is unidentifiable and even if we could  Socrates returned to the logic of techne (expertise) identify it, just like any art, it would have to be just and unjust and  An art is concerned with the benefit of the rule - whether it makes therefore justice would become both just and unjust sense and whether it captures the world as we know it- all artisans  Takeaway: justice isn‟t an art- what do we usually say it is? therefore rulers as a species of artisans are concerned with the  Justice is a virtue (a character trait)- is a virtue the same as an art? advantage of their clients  What distinguishes a good man from others is his intention  Not so true because artisans are as much concerned with their own  Just man is a simple man not one with a PhD or another craft who advantage as much as the advantage of their clients pretends he knows something  Thrasymachus‟ speech 345b-e  Doesn‟t a just man know that it‟s better to be just than unjust?  Thrasymachus is so provoked by Socrates that he blurts it all out-  Justice depending on knowledge- if we agree that justice consists everyday and all the time one should do injustice… (see book) in doing good and if we do, it cant be that we can be just without  Thrasymachus tries to go away after giving this speech- Socrates knowing what good is and how to accomplish it? and others make him stay  Socrates: whether justice or injustice compromise the greatest good talk to it about something noble)- explore he issue of the  Both agree that the issue in pursuing something in life is about superiority of justice to injustice or vice verse in three arguments what‟s in it for you- looking out for yourself but that justice is  Socrates praises Thrasymachus‟ sincerity- this sincerity would better for oneself than injustice-Socrates‟ realism present a challenge to Socrates- most people would say that  Artisanship- art of wage earning practicing injustice would be ignoble but to their own advantage-  The shepherd also practices the wage earner and that is his own Socrates wants to know how he would be able to separate the noble good from the good?  Each of the particular arts aims only at the good of its objects- for  Doesn‟t the noble speak of the higher part of one‟s soul- good for this very reason; every artisan practices the wage earning art oneself to act nobly- halfway house between wanting to be good and noble on one hand and saying that one has to be just on the (example: doctors…)  Ruling is for the benefit of the rule other hand  The issue: the most profitable way of art- doesn‟t make sense to  Thrasymachus: injustice is noble and is good – unconventional just emphasize his one form of art opinion- important: he has declared himself as someone who  Tension between all the other arts which is selfless and the wage would present himself as someone who talks about things which are questionable in public earner which is selfish- second concern might be more important  Socrates: than the benefit of the rule- people look out for themselves (when they practice this wage earning art)- model of the art the practice of 1) Just man is wise and good, the unjust man is ignorant and which aims at no good other than the good of the practitioner bad- he gets to this conclusion by a poor argument which is  Socrates may have defeated Thrasymachus but only by conceding very tactical- a conventional argument made by naïve men- most of the argument to him shows Thrasymachus for being so unconventional and for being so imprudent- Dialectic is comprised of faulty or  Short side discussion between Socrates and Glaucon: by having sloppy arguments but also shows us the different human Glaucon speak here, Plato reminds us that that Thrasymachus types and to show us more about the human situation- learn earned his wage by teaching to students just like Glaucon- almost always the wages of ruling don‟t appear to the good man- not more than seeing logic as a mathematical equation- concerned so much with what the Thrasymachian ruler is  Whether those who seek knowledge are just or unjust? concerned with- he did not have to submit to a rule worse than  The Sophist might take advantage of his own students- or that in presenting his speech on tyranny he spill the beans in front of himself- Glaucon concerned with the good man and justice as a everyone and any ruler would not do that, would pretend that noble calling but he is also self interested- Glaucon is a mixture of Polemarchus (concern for the good man) and the Thrasmachyan justice is a good thing and not speak of tyranny with such power as element (self interested) he is more complex than those two Thrasymachus did – Thrasymachus cant himself become a tyrant characters and therefore, he‟s just a teacher- Thrasymachus is proud of his  At this point the conversation takes a strange turn- why is it knowledge and of teaching someone become a tyrant- he sees that strange? Socrates and Thrasymachus take up from the beginning means (teaching) as more important than ruling itself – these are the reasons why Thrasymachus ends up agreeing with Socrates‟ whether justice is superior to injustice (Thrasymachus: injustice argument- more profitable and better than justice, it is wise, and fairer than justice, just man is a simpleton and is naïve)- This is strange  He shows that he cares about public opinion- look at passage by because usually people don‟t praise injustice as admirable (don‟t Bloom  Socrates ends up making highly questionable arguments but if  This tells us very important about human life and how justice Thrasymachus did not feel defeated, he would not have continued figures in human life Sophist (teacher of rhetoric) is himself to agree confused about justice  Characters matter in this dialogue: the kind of arguments each  Experience that Sophist has is very much different than that of the character makes reflects the kinds of people they are philosopher  Thrasymachus‟ character presents a contradiction- on one hand he  Fascinating for Glaucon- potential student of the Sophist- presents his art as a means to injustice, but rather than keeping his philosopher defeats the Sophist on the level of rhetoric- defeating art to himself, he goes around teaching it… He presents his art as a the Sophist at his own game- philosopher defeating the Sophist as a means to gain but prides himself for his reputation of art.. he‟d better Sophist than the actual Sophist rather be wise than called a tyrant even though what he teaches is  Glaucon and Adeimentus- these two the main interlocutors tyranny – knowledge more important than tyranny- he is known as  Life has become deeply problematic- come to Socrates with real what we today call an Intellectual [someone who makes his living questions will not settle on nothing but a genuine answer by his thought, concerned in making his living with his reputation  Plato himself was trying to understand what justice was as he was than by learning the truth, knowledge as a means but prides writing the Republic himself as a knower, someone whose mind is on sale, yet he prides himself of his intellectual integrity, someone whose soul is divided  Glaucon (from the cities wealthiest class, always most courageous in everything, shows this courage here on the level of intellect, in a way that Socrates soul is not (theory and practice one and the wouldn‟t accept Thrasymachus‟ giving up)- familiar with same, a philosophical life, practice of theory)] Thrasymacus‟ view but doennt endorse it- lot to be said for  Shows the contradiction in the souls of people like Thrasymachus]- injustice, wants to say that on behalf of injustice in a more radical Socrates uses this against Thrasymachus to outdo him- Socrates way than Thrasymachus so that Socrates would give a better defeats him without refuting him, Socrates arguments only serve to defense for why justice is better than injustice- wished that deepen our doubts about justice- further than ever from a clear sense of what justice is? End of book I, he admits that without someone would refute this case for injustice, by no means certain that someone could- he really wants to know what justice is- how knowing what justice is, we cannot know whether it‟s a virtue and orderly his beginning is: presents Socrates with a classification of whether the one who has it is happy or unhappy three types of goods (what justice is in these groups)  Socrates wanted to have a conversation with Glaucon and now he  Socrates responds with the second option: finest kind which is will hear from a very agitated Glaucon- this dialogue with justice good both for itself and its consequences- not Glaucon‟s view with begins from the Piraus to Athens is a more comprehensive treatment of justice because now he has heard from everyone in the  Begins his classification with the good that is…lists the goods in descending order- how this comes in his character with what‟s book good in itself rather than its consequences- why would he rank  Art in the strict sense (benefit of the person whom the art something as good in itself? provides)- art of wage earning (self earning)  Glaucon wants a pure good-nothing mercenary about it, not  Socrates silences without refuting Thrasymachus- he shoes that tarnished by any ulterior motive, he is an idealist in this way but this teacher of rhertoric is someone who is divided that his pride is that the life of pleasure is important to him too not well founded- defeats him with very idealistic assumptions  Glaucon appeals from convention to nature- considers what the about justice building blocks in men‟s nature is that leads it to society as being  358e  Justice thus represents a reversible natural order of things  Justice is the conspiracy of the weaker to the stronger- its about  There are ways to get around the Gods- Example: Cephalus who doing what we don‟t want to do succumbed to Eros now he has to pay for it before he dies and buy 1) Most people act just
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