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Department
Political Science
Course
POL200Y1
Professor
Clifford Orwin
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 1 – Jan 10/13 - Perhaps he seems refreshingly honest compared to Plato and - Machiavelli: shocking and also familiar Aristotle - Chapter 7 of Machiavelli‟s Prince- stories like this that gave - The world is simply a world of necessity- atoms collided, history Machiavelli the reputation “the teacher of evil” after his book was did not make sense, nature brutal and violent published- some found his teaching so unbelievably outrageous - Paved the way for the use of nature in order to serve human ends- that they found it satirical to torture nature in order to satisfy human desires - Savor Machiavelli‟s work playfully- wasn‟t a democrat in - Modernity: defined by the ruthless exploitation of nature disguise- understood politics as the art of power and art of - Globalization wouldn‟t be possible without Machiavelli acquisition- Repudiated Plato and Aristotle - Machiavelli helped to liberate the acquisitive passions (now called - Classical and Christian theory agreed that nature is rational rational self interest instead of greed)- Acquisitive passions at the - Human beings by nature were social creatures foundation of capitalism, certain part of revolution in which the - Virtue: good in itself worth pursuing for its own sake- Plato argued vice of greed has been made respectable that the Philosophical life was the highest life- Aristotle and Cicero - By breaking free from traditional notions of natural order, he placed more importance on the political life opened his contemporaries to the power of people as a group- not a - What if these pious and peaceful ideas don‟t add up? democrat- first to recognize the political power of the people- - Disconnect about ideas of natural order and civic harmony on the people themselves provide military help one hand and the power politics outside the writer‟s study - These remarks might say that Machiavelli was shocking to the - What is the truth of political life? Patriotism? Self sacrifice? Or pious, but at the same time he is all too familiar to us since we are Selfishness? Betrayal? Oppression? Conquest living out the Machiavellian legacy in economic and political fields - Machiavelli was knowledgeable about the classic and Christian - The ruler do whatever works in order to achieve a successful ideas but found it dishonest (not speaking truth about power) and condition- openly worships success destructive (theories don‟t seem to work in real political life)- the - Lorenzo a small time ruler without any big accomplishments to his truth of politics is the effectual truth (the principles that work) own name - Machiavelli wanted to write a work that told the truth of politics - Is this dedicatory epistle as straightforward as it appears? - A new continent of politics where heaven and hell and - Many readers have thought that Machiavelli wrote the work in philosophers and souls could all be forgotten- pay attention to what order to flatter Lorenzo and in order to get a job- a simplistic first really matters: power, glory and acquisition impression - Born in 1649 in Florence, Italy- lived during the Italian - Lorenzo anything but magnificent- his grandfather was Renaissance (re birth but the rebirth of what?) rebirth of classical magnificent- calling him magnificent will make him embarrassed- greek and roman learning- new texts and new works of arts from we have to think how seriously Machiavelli takes Lorenzo- kept greek and roman arts were being circulated- an exciting time this dedicatory letter to Lorenzo even after Lorenzo‟s death- did - What political thinkers were going to do with this new tradition? Machiavelli want to present himself as flattering a third level - Civic humanist: emphasized very pious ideals: liberty, equal prince in order to get himself a clerical job? Unlikely- presents the citizenship, patriotism,- created a pious version of the classical work as the greatest gift he has in contrast to the horses etc. that ideas for the consumption of the contemporary fellow citizens others give to princes- this is a book that presents useful - Held up a mirror in which the Prince (ruler) were supposed to see knowledge- uses ancient examples but he is not enthralled to those what an ideal prince had to look like examples- wants to point out what works? Go beyond the ancients- - Machiavelli was shocking to his temporaries: celebrated the use of study the question of what makes for greatness- Lorenzo really ugly means in order to achieve a ruler‟s objective need advice on what makes rulers great- why? Because he himself is far from great- in fact if Machiavelli knows what makes for question first because it worries about the injustice of acquisition- political greatness then perhaps he should be the rulers- but assuming that inherited kingdoms are somehow fixed or given- all Machiavelli is letting the ambiguity stand- what is his knowledge kingdoms exist by acquisitions, no founding without violence- used for? Maybe for acquiring things? Is Machiavelli‟s advice Offense is the only policy- useful for acquiring such things (horses, golden cloths)? Or useful - Chapter 3 is a quite complex chapter that mixes ancient and for acquiring territory or city-states and kingdoms? Problem: to use modern examples this gift well, the recipient needs to be the right sort of prince and - King Louis of France made 5 mistakes- he‟s not the model to understand Machiavelli‟s gift- not clear if Lorenzo is such a man- follow- he emphasizes the Romans work useful for those who can read him intelligently? But what - Ruler has to embrace the dirtiness and then make it clean – a about those who cannot read him intelligently- regime worth having – the Romans sent in colonies after acquiring- - He himself understands the relations between the high and the low, how did they acquire in the first place? Knew how to manipulate between the ruler and his people- Machiavelli concludes that he power? Kept weak states alive but weak- could get together a wishes Lorenzo to acquire fortune group of weak states and added together they could become a very - Who has recently undergone a recent change in fortune? strong state- the enemy of my enemy is my friend- my friend and Machiavelli himself- by contrast to Lorenzo‟s good fortune, ally is whoever is useful to me but after I‟ve destroyed my enemy Machiavelli himself had to put up with undeserved infortune- then the enemy of my former enemy is no longer useful to me and Lorenzo done nothing to deserve his kingdom? Unlikely to keep it? no longer my friend and he deserved to be conquered too- ancient - Acquiring kingdoms and the role of memory Roman ideology emphasized keeping faith and fighting just wars- - Taxonomy of principalities based on a simple principle: how they but Machiavelli unmasks that ideology and is being more honest are acquired- acquisition is the first concern of political prudence- about the Romans than the Romans were about themselves- Roman compare this chapter the politics of Aristotle- one of Machiavelli‟s ideology also held that the Romans only fought defensive wars- chief instruments for changing minds was silence on certain but Machiavelli says that the Romans foresaw problems before it questions- what appears to be the most normal and ethical method arrived- they were professionals- he introduces the theme of self of acquisition: inheritance (inherited kingdoms are easiest to hold reliance- relied on their strength and their prudence- didn‟t rely on on to, they are more natural, the subjects have no memory of how their good luck- virtu ( not classical virtue, efficacious power and the rulers came to power, if they had those memories, they might capacity to get things done in an advantageous way)Romans have grievance and revolutions come into being)- inheritance is exemplified the appropriate use of force, went all the way- if you luck and luck teaches us nothing, it contemptible- inherited need to injure someone do it in such a way that they are destroyed- principalities perhaps have their own ideologies (develop an make sure they can‟t get up to fight another round- does ideology: good advice for a ruler who wishes to acquire Machiavelli admire republic per se? Yes and no! chapter 5- principalities) republics as another acquisition, a thing to be had- can be - Mixed principalities: scientific term, adding territory to existing reinvented to the greatest capacity territory- adding territory to previously held territories- easier to do - Chapter 6- new kingdoms acquired with ones own armies and when a prince acquires territory near his old territory one‟s own virtu - Knowledge of the people is crucial to knowledge of their ruling- - Image of Machiavelli as a painter: chapter 6 is the peak of the first does Machiavelli‟s non- chalance to violence disturb us? Yes but part of the prince- Machiavelli discusses completely new kingdoms he would say that it leads us to greater security? Killing a few governed by men who were not princes before- greatest of men as better than killing a lot? Why should rulers focus their energies on examples to follow: Moses, Cyrus… acquisitions? Isn‟t inherited territory good enough? It‟s a pious - WE should admire Moses not for his own skills but for that grace - Wickedness no objection to success that made him worthy to talk with God - Machiavelli will not come out with this shocking truth in a - Machiavelli doesn‟t believe that God was the teacher of Moses- shocking way God very important in one sense- greatest founders like Moses - Agathethis only shortcoming is that he didn‟t find any glory- he used religion for rhetorical purposes didn‟t create a myth of himself, didn‟t use a religious ideology like - Moses used religion for political purposes- all of these founders the others- used religion for the purposes of power- civil religion is a way to - Gain distance from traditional religion colonize the souls of people- all of the greatest rulers claimed to - Iliberato got himself killed at a dinner party- he did some evil have God as an instrument of their power things which was good but got himself killed which was bad - Fortune gave these men their opportunity- what opportunity did - Distinguish between cruelty well used, and cruelty abused fortune give these great examples of the founder? - Cruelty well used results in the populace‟s trust in a matter of time - Fortune is randomness, luck, simply what happens to you, simply - Is there such a thing as cruelty well used? what happens in the world, what happens as a result of necessity of - Normally cruelty is an abuse nature- these leaders had a bad luck- turned this bad luck into - Appropriate classification of cruelties- whether cruelty is possible necessity through their virtu- needed nothing from fortune and useful- how do you classify cruelties - We think back now on Machiavelli in the dedicatory Epistle- he - Left behind the taxonomy that he started with has had bad luck himself- is he suggesting he is like these leaders - 2 fundamental options: acquisition by virtu (cruelness, well used) himself? A founder of the new world order? Initially beset by his or fortune fortune, being born into a politically weak and fractured Italy- an - Chapter 9 opportunity to change the world- fortune makes a new ruler start - Theme of chapter 9 is rulers and the people out surrounded by enemies and threats so that he can overcome - Question that Machiavelli asks implicitly is how to understand the these obstacles so that he becomes powerful citizen who has risen to power through his fellow citizens? Lucky - Their nations nobled and blessed by good fortune (thanks to these cunning rather than wickedness or virtu leaders) - Lucky (good luck), cunning (virtu) Lecture 2-Jan 17/13 - Is it better to be supported by he people or by the elite? - Ancient founders relied solely on virtu while Borgia relied on - People and the elite are dispositional opposed: different goals and fortune circumstances, left alone in security- want to enjoy their property- - Chapter 8: Machiavelli discusses wickedness- move on to those simpler who come to power through wicked actions- wants to distinguish - Member of the elite are imperialistic, drives for power and glory- these from the ones who come to those from fortune and from virtu both empower ordinary citizens- liberated from ordinary - First example (greater example): Ciracuse- page 28, his necessities- employ and control others- Hobbes: elite are wickedness testifies to the strength of his virtu (kind of wickedness dangerous because they are driven by honor- ordinary citizens that Machiavelli might admire) don‟t care about honor- elite have the mentality of rulers, they see - Page 29- why does Machiavelli go on to say that… owe nothing to princes as equal of themselves- Machiavelli presents the either luck or virtu? dispostions of tehse groups as economic and social circumstances - Machiavelli seems to be preserving the category of wickedness - In favor of people power in a strict sense- people hold the greatest - ,.. wickedness has turned out to be virtu and when Machiavelli says amount of military, physical power- not in favor of people power that … „s accomplishmnets are not virtu, it seems inconsistent in the sense of democracy- have to be governed and managed- - Not the teacher of wickedness concessions have to be made to them but no question of people‟s backs and then kill them- two advantages: 1) can then raise involvement in the affairs of the state meritorious commoners to the ranks of the elite by giving them - In order to maintain power, the ruler needs the support of the titles and property, 2) ppl will feel indebted to you, for destroying people, elite will always produce potential rivals whereas people the elite who might‟ve repressed them, and for giving them do not produce rivals- takes a stand against a sort of proverb benefactions and protect them without deserving it- will follow you - Page 33 “relying on the people is like building on the sand”- many more loyaly because you don‟t owe anything to them traditional writers though that - Political psychology- politics turns out to be a manner of demos - Key to ruling well according to Machiavelli is to gain the support management, managing the people correctly- must consider the of the populace, only the masses count- for the elite is powerless psychology of people- winning over a populace is not a without the populace straightforward matter – leader will have to know the history of the - Agrees with traditional writers that the people are fickle- rely on people (their attitudes and expectations)- One universal rule: man people because they have power- they have the ultimate source of of virtu (protector, not indecisive, not a coward- with for sight and your own military power vision even when you don‟t need the people, give them leadership) - Rulers life is complex- needs loyal deputies- needs somebody to - Not much of a theory of leadership as a way in which Machiavelli delegate authority to- elite administrators- will have to employ is more closly atuned to the nitty gritty of the political life in the certain members of the elite for his own purposes- elite can be of ancient political texts two sorts- useful if loyal (always suspect because they tend to think - In order to lead the people well right from the beginning, their virtu well of themselves)- make them loyal in particular if you give them has to be impressive, has to make an impression- cant be a man of a position of power, if you give them property , if they owe their virtu secretly- has to impress people with his virtu- use spectacles position to you, they will be loyal- possible not for all members of if necessary- impression you create has real political the elite, only for those willing their independence of the prince- consequences- virtu has to give the right impression in order to others who retain their ambitions, who refuse to join the prince‟s make the most political regime will have to be killed and treated as public enemies- the - In investigation the psychology of this relationship, he points out carnage of the Spartan noble by the Spartan king (Nabus)- had to certain paradoxes  ruler needs the people, but has to avoid the neutralize a few (kill them), kill nobles who retain their impression of neediness- want and even need to be led (why independence politics is a demos management of the people)- cant be weak to - Twofold conception of the elite: some loyal , others trying to show the people that you need them even though you do need maintain their own ambitions and independence them- politics is therefore not the appropriate domain for the - One type of prince: makes his subordinates loyal to him (it works principle of transparency and truthfulness- cant be transparent because not only are the elite are loyal but the people will about your need for the people recognize only a single ruler, everody will be loyal to the prince)- - Chapter 10 modern france (weak state), ruled by a monarch alogn with a - How can you measure a ruler‟s strength? Is a ruler militarily self groyp of ambitious nobles who retain their hereditary ambitions- reliant or dependent on the support of other rulers with troops? the populace respected the nobles on their own account- situation - Important distinction of divided authority- question of divided authority is an important - Initial distinction: rulers self reliant if they can muster an army and part to keep in mind face battle against anyone- dependent on the support of other if - Best case scenario: support of the people but how do you acquire they cannot take the field against all comers and have to hide your power? Rise to power with the help of the elite and then to behind their fortresses slaughter them, never going to be truly grateful, so climb on their - Odd that Machiavelli gives the example of the free and - Precisely what Cesare Borgia had failed to do despite his notable independent cities of Germany- they‟re free but rely on fortresses expression of virtu (perhaps he should‟ve become Pope) but sound self reliant- cities of Germany seem to break down a - Father of Cesare Borgia- lived long enough to amass power for the distinction between self reliance and reliance of fortification church- pope‟s are elected to power when they are too old to do - His point is that even rulers who rely on fortifications can do so, anything with it- but Cesare‟s father was different- Cesare Borgia only on two conditions- leaders of virtu (cant take shelter in after all was the creature of his father- Alexander the real prince fortification unless you are strong and in control of your people responsible for the power of Cesare- power he had amassed for the already)- leader who decides to stay in his fortification has to church lasted, and Cesare‟s enemy came into power and built on already have the support of his people- original distinction between that – self reliance and reliance on others: rulers are self reliant if they - Page 37 “usually its….” have laid the foundations of their power by cultivating their - Chapter 12-14: numerically are right at the center of Machiavelli‟s relationship with the people, need support of the people story - Reconsiders these questions in chapter 20- he suggests that the best - Does appear to be leading us a path through peaks and valleys on kind of fortress is not being hated by one‟s people- suggests the the way to a promised land- sounds like Moses (leading his people idea of a metaphorical fortress- if you have the people as your to a promised land, promised in Moses imagination)- new followers then you have a fortress- Machiavelli notes that the promised land that he is primising Romans did use fortresses effectively- even if they have mostly - Begins with a provocative claim- consider laws and armies as the been a cause of corruption in Machiavelli‟s own day- military foundation of a healthy state- impossible to have good laws technology like fortresses must be used prudently- key is to without a good army, declines to talk about laws- law means manage the people with virtu nothing without military power- Plato, Aristotle, Cicero discussed - Chapter 11- ecclestical rulers laws without discussing armies- neither of those philosophers - Rulers who rule by virtue of their religious power- no need of much less Cicero would place armies at the center of their political fortresses because they enjoy the unquestioned obedience of their philosophy (would place law at the center of their political subjects- secure and happy because their subjects do not even think philosophy) – army or people as the foundation of a healthy state? of overthrowing them such as the power of religion- With moses - Who should fight for you? Mercineries, auxiliaries, or should it be who learned the political art from God, he has nothing to say about your own citizens? Mercinaries and auxiliaries are useless- arm the eccelsitical institutions becaue their power was built by God masses and control them with oath and fear – even if mercanaries - Only a presumptuous and rash person would debate with priests win, the victory wont be yours- rome, Sparta, Swiss earned the over religious institutions because they are in power by God but benefits of arming the people- arming the people often leads to vast goes on to discuss … at length conquest- mercanaries have kept Italy weak and divided, loyalty of - Will talk about temporal power but not spiritual power- temporal the people if crucial to the ruler because they only fight for the and political power can be grasped by human intelligence- religion rulers, only they are attached to their fatherlands is an invention of politics (according to Machiavelli)- in reality, if - Chapter 13- even worse than mercanaries are auxiliaries- their you do understand politics, then you will understand religion- allegiance is to someone else- fight patriotically for their own debating politics requires you to debate religion- no distinction fatherlands and not yours- chapter 13 full of examples (how he between spiritual or temporal rounds- he is the one who will take uses these examples)- Pope Julius the second succeeded only on the city founded by Jesus Christ (heavenly city) because he was lucky- ruler of auxiliaries will take over your state- - Whether Machiavelli admires the church‟s power to control the arm your own citizenry minds and hearts of the fateful- religious power is unquestionable - Borgia just like Pope Julius- both stupid and tried all three kinds Cyrus of Xenephons writings)- why does he add that detail? Why before arming their own citizenries- a greater Prince saw the Sepia doesn‟t simply model himself after Cyrus? Cyrus was one of problem and massacred the citiies mercenaries before obtaining his the greatest founders- chastity, affability and kindness as own troops- how is he using these stories? biblical story of David Xenophon demonstrates Cyrus- doenst sound too good for and Goliath- what is the biblical story and how has he changed it? Machiavelli- Sepia was very pious and read history books piously- He highlights an individual detail- David offered the armer of Machiavelli reads history books impiously and thus rejects things saws- Machiavelli using this to show that you should rely on your like affability, chastity, kindness- without any respect for the own arms even if they initially appear weaker then other peoples moralistic conditions making him pious- army- David is a young man (weak) who goes up against a strong - Machiavelli means to hide a great deal from his unintelligent philistine Goliath- fighting in the name of God- part of the story leaders-hiding things- attacks works like Plato‟s republic on the that Machiavelli doesn‟t tell you- weak man fighting in the name grounds that their republic are imaginary- dealing with people as of God fighting against a strong philistine- his point: use your own they are, rather than as they ought to be- you will destroy yourself- arms and then perhaps you will become king as David did they take an overly opetmistic view of human nature or of the eventually- possibilities of educating human nature- even though the ruler - Nothing is so fragile as a reputation for strength that doesn‟t should become generous, just, kind, merciful, pious and so on… correspond to one‟s capacities- with arms only the reality is he‟ll be dealing with other people, who are inconstant, selfish, important disloyal, Prince cant accomplish anything at all unless he knows - One thing to consider about this chapters- Machiavelli talking how to be both good and not good as necessary- this is difficult about the use of arms within the ling context of thinking about because we all have been indoctrinated through Christian lenses- warfare- war supposed to be fought for the sake of peace (common politics not about cultivating your virtues- how much time spent theme in the works of Aristotle, Cicero and Augustine)- criticized there on the educational system? the militaristic passions- the just war tradition held that war should - Accepts the Christian tradition of human being as fallen, selfish only be fought for the sake of peace- for Machiavelli, the art of war and prideful creatures, but wheareas st Augustine and others will is the only true object of study for a prince- peace is for the sake of ask how to reform the people so as to make them better, war- not war for sake of peace- note the ancient ruler Philo Machiavelli asks how to manage them for the world of politics? Porman, wounds up always theorizing war, he is admired because - How much space is devoted to civic education? All of this helps to during peace time he thought only about warfare- must use peace explain why Machiavelli helps to reassess the virtues? Give a list well for the sake of war- war is the ever present reality- of virtues in chapter 15 (very traditional in that way)- Machiavelli embraces that fact- war is whats normal, war is the - Machiavelli assumes that what is honorable and according to end state not peace (why peace is for the sake of war)- Page 46: classics and what is useful is in conflict according to the world we reminds us of the image of the painting the Dedicatory Epistle, live in- give all honor to whatever is useful- in his list on page 48- ruler always descending into valleys and whatnot, studying - All of these qualities must be manipulated and strategically geography and studying his people, people the true backbone of his employed army - His political teaching is militarized- Machiavelli makes a very striking recommendation, to read history books in your spare time- recommends reading and taking examples from history, we have to do this in just the right way- example of reading in the wrong way: ancient roman leader Sepia (highly admirable leader who imitated  Using cruelty well will bring stability  Cesare Borgia had a reputation for cruelty but he used cruelty well  M wants to communicate that the ruler has to keep in mind that the because he outsourced his crulty to Romairo d‟Oreon people have their own beliefs , you cant to anything that would  Greatest of new rulers: moses and cyrus do not have a reputation lead people to hate you for cruelty- why not? How does that compare to what Machiavelli  M says nothing about the intrinsic goodness says now?  M remains silent about the question of divine justice  New ruler who used cruelty well- his example was a woman-  The only reward of the virtue is success cruelty is not an indicator of manliness but it is an expression of leadership – her weakness was her love for…  Love and fear- is it more important to be loved or to be feared? Chapter 16  Fear can be controlled, love cannot be controlled- love is a matter  Works out the ideas to the rlation to money and generosity of fortune whereas fear comes from vertu – cicero had suggested that the generosity is a general  Cicero‟s treatement of fear and love- engaged with the writings of requirement of the civic friendship Cicero- Cicero discusses the bonds that can be cultivated between  Rulers and leaders acquire glory – cicero the lower orders and aristrocratic leaders- properly educated  M takes this virtue from the perspective of the ruler and the ordinary citizens can be counted on to love for the right reasons- populace disagree on the character of the lower classes- o M is worrying that the traditional conception of  For Machiavelli, relying on the love of people is like building on generosity would lead to contemt or hatred towards sands- willing to neglect their gratitude when it is their interest to the ruler do so- revising some of his earlier ideas- ideas of unifying the o M raises a practical question how do you pay for the interests of people and leader, he turns to fear as the ultimate generosity instrument of power- fear leads to an entirely different dynamic-  This question is not really noble fear of punishment especially the fear of death is not fickle because  Generosity is based on money it never goes away- question of christinaity, relying on the notion  Isn‟t M right ? that most crhistians are not strong enough to rely on mathyrs-  Can you afford generosity without robbing earthly fear is always useful – especially useful if you are able to your own people ? eradicate the belief in the afterlife- divine rewards and  Generosity is self defeating – if u start u punishments- temporal and spiritual power, political and religious don‟t stop, if u stop populace would hate power must be united if political power is to be exercised in a you genuinely effective way- thoughts on fear and love, Cicero would  Miser – little by little and people will be respond that a tyrant will nto withstand the hatred of the masses- happy – you will be able to protect the Machiavelli doesn‟t use the word tyrant in the Prince- why not? people have an army Cicero‟s argument explains why Machiavelli makes a special point  Saving money will give them what in saying that its perfectly possible to be feared and not hated- fear they want – peace and long term doesn‟t necessarily lead to hatred- Machiavelli believes that men stability will forget their father‟s death sooner than the loss of their Acquisition to warfare – imperialism inheritance- still use fear as a central instrument of political power-  Generosity neither good nor bad Cicero “if men wish to be feared, then they must inevitably fear those by whom they will be feared”, tyrant will have to fear their rather than as an advisor to the princes? How is Machiavelli like own people- Machiavelli accepts this consequence, rulers should chyron? fear their people and consipiracy-once fear is well established then  Chapter 18: insofar as the ruler acts as an animal, he‟ll model love may be possible- love is possible only if based on a himself …those who simply act like a lion all the time don‟t foundation of fear- similar to his conclusion in chapter 16 where understand their business, force is crucial, but in the ordinary generosity was possible only on the basis of imperialism- events, deception will be more useful-ruler has to be flexible- a traditional virtues are possible only if foundations are laid by bold and animalistic set of behaviors will be called for- the ruler traditional vices- end of chapter 17, revisists the example of Cepio must be mentally prepared to act as circumstances and changes in and compares him to Hannibal- Cepio was affaible and kind and fortune require, don‟t let it cause mischieve for you- morality over learned to be that way from reading Xenophon- recommends immorality in that sentence? Machiavelli is stating a preference for reading history books to learn how great men conducted success- hes judging that the appearance of having morality will themselves in war- Cepio has read Xenophon the wrong way- normally be the best option- the people usually respect morality- excessively lenient with his subordinates- lead to the masscare of give the people what they want often to keep them behind you- an entire city, lack of punishment for that masscare and little by following ruler who is constantly brutal- ruler who follows this little corruption of his army- Hanibal was more successful because advice wont actually be honest, pious but is only acting that way- he was harsh and cruel, lead an army and that army feared him- being a good human being is not intrinsically worthwhile for a Machiavelli admires Hannibal even despite powerful … ruler, acting like a good human being is not instrumentally useful  Chapter 18- question of dishonesty, fraud and deception for a a good ruler- people will let themselves be deceived- people  Begins by pointing out everybody loves honesty…what is the sometime want to be deceived- effectual truth? Crafty and dishonest rulers turn out to overcome  Chapter 19- concerns hatred and contempt rulers with integrity most of the time- what do we make of this  Discussing how a ruler can avoid hatred and contempt- doing so is truth? Engaging with a previous tradition: Cicero- Cicero: an withing the rulers control- can get away with having a reputation upstanding citizen will never act like a fox or a lion- cicero like for other vices- must not be a coward and should not steal which plato and Aristotle.. wants to preserve and cultivate what is inspired hatred- elaborating on his thoughts on fear- ruler ought to distinctevly human about people so that to make them sociable and fear his subjects given the possibility of conspiracy- keeping the cultivated people loyal is always the goal that avoids conspiracy and in fact  Rulers has a dramatic personality- doesn‟t value these activities for doesn‟t allow conspirators to start- keeping and maintaining the their own sake- flexibility to be a fox or a lion or a human being loyalty of people through fear and perhaps goodwill and love is the when necessary- adabtibility- tutor of Achiles- traditionally that best protection against conspiracy- key to last part of his work- story had emphasized justice and the philosophical education that perhaps the Romans provide counterexamples to vertu- men of was given to Achiles- Machiavelli takes the story in just the vertu who were destroyed anyways- introduces a complication to opposite way- Chyron shows that princes have to be half a beast, his sociology- emperors had to conern themselves not only with half a human- he is half beast and half men, aspiration of princes the nobility and people but also with the army- professional army shold be half beastly rather than to be Godly- Machiavelli‟s prince who tended to be loyal to the leader rather than to the city- has to do the exact opposite, imitate the beast- is it possible that complicated sociological pictur
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