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POL200 Lecture #2

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Political Science
Rebecca Kingston

09/18/2013 POL200 Lecture #2 The Clash of the two cities: Sparta vs. Athens Timeline 8 century B.C.E – Lycurgus 6 century B.C.E – Solon 431-404 B.C.E. – Peloponnesian War (Sparta v. Athens) 428-348 (?) B.C.E.- Plato 385-322 B.C.E – Aristotle (student of Plato) 46-120 C.E – Plutarch - Plutarch is writing after a long time after Lycurgus and Solon, 900 years - Plutarch, well known classical historian o The intention is to build a picture, of a better understanding of the Spartan regime o Product of a single will, to a set of rules and regulations o The nature of the community that they built and their features and how we should live as human beings o Sparta and Athens a war that lasted 27 years - City states: entities relatively small but focused on one city, land and population around the city as well - Roughly 750 city states in ancient Greece, Athens (one of the largest populations), 300-400 residents, 450 citizens - Undeveloped city states, largely agriculture, politically independent (idealistic), - Who were the Spartans? - Who was Lycurgus o 19 century representation by the artist Merry-Joseph Blondel) o Someone who did not seek power, worked to keep power in the linage of this offspring and brothers o The theme of someone that is fit to rule but may be the less ambitious o The Rhetra: a religious blessing o The virtue of honor, courage, strength, hostility, all the qualities of a warrior  To define its community an the way of life to the best of its ability 1. to develop the most effective fighting force a. aim to produce the best source of human, to serve the country s.24 b. in Sparta a freeman is more than a freeman then in anywhere else c. they were not slaves to the markets This is Sparta… 1) Situating Sparta and reflections on Lycurgus- the Rhetra 2) The deeper purpose behind Lycurgus’ reforms: “he thought that the happiness of an entire city, like that of single individual, depended on 09/18/2013 the prevalence of virtue and concord within its own borders. The aim, therefore, of all his arrangements and adjustments was to make his people free-minded, self-sufficing, and moderate in all their ways, and to keep them so as long as possible.” (s. 31) 3) What did Lycurgus do? How did Sparta function? a) Formal political institutions and law: ss. 6, 7, 13 the counsel of elders, check to the power of the king allowing regime to last longer than its neighbours with education, laws become written into ones character b) Foreign policy and immigration: ss. 13, 27. Forbidden to make repeated campaigns(will only make the opposition more war like) Foreigners not allow living aboard, wandering around To keep bad manners and infectious diseases out of the city c) Economic reforms: ss. 7, 9, 13. Addressing necessary needs, sufficiency without luxury
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