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Lecture 3

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Rebecca Kingston

POL 200 Lecture 3 th ** Textual Commentary Due Nov. 4 ** Plato III I) Making the analogy Work • Some suggest it works on a very general level : there is harmony, there is no conflict in the city; this is what Plato is getting at; the just soul has no inner conflicts. • How do we understand the qualities of the soul? • Think about the soul in a pure way: appetite is pure desire, spirit is a pure life force that drives us, but is different than desire • The rational part of the soul refers to that part of the soul that values knowledge • The spirit part of the soul links to things like individual dignity, self respect etc... • The impeditive part of the soul is drawn to material thinks • 439B- the spirit, the desire to see the bodies • 4 cardinal virtues: Justice (we must think of how we act towards people) , Wisdom (what is beneficial vs what is good), Courage (defined as knowledge of what to fear and what not to fear 442E, it involves a form of knowledge), Moderation (reason should rule, in city people will respect the role of philosopher, in soul appetite is not completely void of cognitive capacity – there is an ability to lock into the rightness of reason) II) The Just Soul • In the perfectly just soul we can see a educated moderated appetite. For most, moral behaviour is a struggle, • A perfectly just is not just one where reason rules, but one where reason is trained to know and acknowledge good III) The Dual Dynamic: a city built and a city questioned • The wealth of details that allows us to consider that this may possibly more than just the model of the soul, but at the same time offering some hints that make us question whether this in fact the building of a viable model • The city appears more credible when we think about it as a series of practices related to education - its not so much a model of politics as an institutional structure, but rather, think of politics as a process of education • Many things we wouldn’t want to live with: censorship, limit to private property ownership, luxuries are rationed – a limit to what can be obtained • Book V 459E, the system of genetic engineering particularly uncomfortable: regulates sexual practices amongst the guardian class, a type of eugenics, best men
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