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Leviathan Chapter Notes.pdf

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Political Science
Janice Stein

Part 1 of ManChapter 1 Of Sense 1Thoughts are either singly or train dependant on otheroSingly are products of bodily sensesRepresentation or appearanceoObject is an body which exists without usoWe all have different perceptions of objects because we all perceive through sensesoTherefore many appearances of one object subjectivity oRelative realityLimited realityknowledgeReality is limited to what we can senseReality is nothing more than appearances 2All conceptions of man are derived from his senses There rest are from that original3Cause of senses oExternal body or object in nature presses organoReact with body to create a feelingoPresseth our organs diversely Harsh interaction with nature 4Sensible qualities lay in object that causes themoObject itself is seperate from the appearance we create of itoSense caused by motion of external thingoMotion causes motionoAristotles position Aristotles essentialism objects in the external world have a certain essence that gives them the qualities that humans experience through their senses For example when we see a red apple there is an inherent redness to the apple that is transmitted to us through sense Thus there is some objective essence or meaning to objects that we experience Contrary to this Hobbes argues that our sensory experience is entirely subjective He argues that to speak of any sort of essence like redness in the absence of an object is absurd since we can only experience that which we can sense Following from this what gives an object meaning is not some essence inhering in an object but our own subjective experience of external bodiesChapter 2 Of Imagination1When a boy is in motion it moves until something hinders it this hindering cannot stop if absolutely but over time through continuos hinderingwwwnotesolutioncomoWaves in water after wind stops blowing2Motion in internal parts of man continues after external thing presseth upon himoie dreams3Greeks fancy appearances imagination4Imaginationdecaying sense5Imagination of past is obscured and made weak as the voice of man is in noise of the day6Time has influence on imagination7Decaying sensememoryoImaginationmemory8Compounded vs simple imaginationoCompounded 2 senseshorseman centauroSimple just 1 senseman9Collection of memoriesexperience10Emotions produce a bodily physical reaction whose remnants carry through in dreams11No imagination in dreamsno dreamsjust agitation12In silence of sense then are our waking thoughts 13Imagination over time is the same as memory 14Memory of things sensed from the outside world is defined as experience while sensation of internal movements of the human body is called a dream when one is asleep or a vision or apparition when one is awake Equates beasts with menoBoth have faculty of imaginationoAnd thus the faculty to use imagination to interpret signs and wordsoAbility to understand15But what makes man different is the ability to understand not only his will his conceptions and thoughts but understand others16Ability to produce causes from effects and effects from causesChapter 31Consequence succession of one thought to anothermental discourse22 types of trains of thoughtsoUnguided without design and inconstantno passionate thought to govern and directwandering thoughtsoRegulatedguided thoughtsRegulated by some desire an designTwo types one when of an effect imagined we seek the causes or means that produce it When imagining anything whatsoever we seek all we can o with it when we have it Quality of MAN only not other speciesoThoughts when governed by designAre seeking faculty of inventionwwwnotesolutioncomHunting out causes and effectsRemembrance calling to mind former actions reconningSometimes a place is determined but the way to get there is notSometimes we want to know the event of an action and so we infer to past similar eventsPrudenceMethod of InductionCant observe all experiences possible so usually such guesses of cause and effect relationsfallaciousTherefore person with most observing experience most likely to be correctSignEvent antecedent of the consequent an sometimes the consequent of the antecedent More prudencemore ability to predict and identify signsPrudence doesnt distinguish man from beast Prudencepresumption of future based on experience from the pastDegree of uncertainty due to it being grounded in experience only oFor besides sense and thoughts and the train of thoughts the mind of man has no other motion though by the help of speech and method the same faculties may be improve to such a height as to distinguish men form all other living creaturesWhatever we imagine is finiteNo idea or concept of infiniteWhen we say infinite we mean we are not able to conceive the ends an bounds of the thing nameno conception but our own inability Chapter 5 Of Reason and ScienceDefinition of Reason oReckoning like in addition subtraction etc oreckoning that is adding and subtracting of the consequences of general names agreed upon for the marking and signifying of our thoughts I say marking them when we reckon by ourselves and signifying when we demonstrate or approve our reckonings to other menUse of ReasonoThe use and end of reason is not the finding of the sum and truth of one or a few consequences remote from the first definitions and settled significations of names but to begin at these and proceed from one consequence to another For there can be no certainty of the last conclusion without a certainty of all those affirmations and negations on which it was grounded and inferredwwwnotesolutioncom
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