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Intro and Lecture.docx

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Political Science
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Clifford Orwin

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Intro and Lecture #1 9/13/2012 10:07:00 AM Professor Owen - In writing for this course you are to interpret and explain what the writers are saying. - Modernity is the key universal concept of political discourse. Everyone believes that their theory is the most modern in its concept - faith in modernity is the faith in progress - modernity is a moving target - Is modernity still at the center of focus today? - It is not modernity, it is post modernity that is now the focus - Why the term post modern? Discontent with modernity but dont have the alternative, a loss of confidence in modernity o To carry on without pure belief in modernity is what it is to be post modern o Look at China to reflect post modern ideology - The modern global economy was the relic of modernity however, today it displays signs of frailty - no western = non modern (supposedly) - Plato and Aristotle are non modernists Plato and the Republic To look at Plato we need to look at the ways in which he disagrees with us because that is where he may actually be right Genre = dialog -- conversation o Why did Plato choose this format? He wants you to have the dialog with yourself, because he wants to make us onlookers and participants in the conversation Allows for question from the reader There are alternatives of observation on any view Socrates is the main character provoking the dialog The dialog/drama: The presentation of the world through the main characters dramatic interactions Plato is actually writing about us humans not humans in a time frame The Dialog: Socrates faithful companion for this adventure is Platos brother (Glaucon) o These two bow to the will of the majority and appease the masses by not refusing to take company with others o this is because the majority has more power (political in context) Socrates in this matter follows suit Pyrius is the setting of the dialog in the beginning o This is important because it is a sea port and that represents the idea of trade of information and ideas o On this particular day in the text is a religious festival in honour of Bendus (a savage backward godess of Athens) The meaning of Cephalus name is the loss of a head which is ironic because he is the head of house Cephalus and Socrates relate in the pleasure of speech o The reasons of this pleasure of speech vary in Cephalus and Socrates because Socrates is still yonung and able yet still gravitates to speech rather then other pleasures such as sex and festivity - this is as much about anger as is it about justice as a while regarding the entire body of work* the role of Wealth : Cephalus does not deny the role of money in reflection of age and thought o Socrates is notoriously poor and thus draws attention to the concept of leisure and money and thought o Cephalus states that he uses his wealth to resolve his debts with humans and gods - Initial presentation of justice: is considered a burden, to avoid greater evils and is controlled by super authorities (the gods) Cephalus fears that he has gotten away with injustices and thats the reason he feels he needs to atone for them Devine punishment 331C. Quote What you say is fine indeed, Cephalus , I said. But as to this very thing, justice, shall we so simply assert that it is the truth and giving back what a man has take from another. Inquisitive questions of justice not a definition This entire exchange is thought to be of bad manners. To question your elders is not the kind of conversation in which Cephalus is inclined to enjoy - to not return a weapon to a man that is mad because of the result in which could transpire. Who could be in danger as a result of the weapon now being in the had of a mad man, is the principal of returning more important or does it need to be amended as a guide - Perhaps delaying the transaction is the proper course and principal what are the conditions in which you uphold the original principal of returning and repaying - At this point, the idea of the greater good comes into play (but who can make this decision who decides what is the good) Polemarchus interjection Comes to the defense of his father Was the interruption of Polemarchus selfless or an act of self interest? (the hire to his fathers wealth) 334-346; the Republic 9/13/2012 10:07:00 AM continuation of previous lecture: Significant of Sophocles objection to Socrates: - ordinary understanding of justices and law as truth - justices is telling truth and returning what is owed unless when the use could cause harm or out to bad use - if we dont know what is good for us then is it up to others to tell us what is the proper or right use of items and time? - because we can not hide behind the law, we thus require a new term of definition of justice - what is owed is the fitting Justice as the friend - friends owe it to friends to do some good - dealings with enemies do we then owe them something bad? - Justice as an art? Each art provides what is fitting to X - knowledge is required to give what is fitting in any art or situation The Just Man: what does he provide the fitting for? What you friend needs is particular Is not What the friend needs subjective and interpreted by the other friend the provider? What is the supreme real of friends and enemies? War! Because the idea of justice changes and must be for the greater of your allies and people not just for yourself Domain of justice in peacetime: contracts or partnerships Justice is useful when there are no other variables like money and other acquisitions The just man is the third party (unbiased) The art of guarding = the art of justice? It is a body of knowledge Is a clever guarding also a clever thief ? inside knowledge and prediction of the actions of others - The art of justice is unidentifiable Justice itself is neither just or unjust, thus it can be concluded as justice is a virtuous quality and not an art
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