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Political Science
Sophia Moreau

POL201YY1: Sept. 27, 2010 Modernization  1950s there was a very important change in polis sci field: research was done outside of North America and Europe o Driven by the Cold war: between USSR and US began in early 1950 in which they were trying to divide the world through democracy and communism  US: what will make more countries democratic, bring them under their sphere of influence under what condition do they become democratic  Lots of funding for research and graduate work for projects in places that were not usually invested in (Africa, Asia, Latin America, previous colonial world) o Driven by Decolonization: No longer under influence of imperialism, 1948 in India was the beginning the start by 1950s and ended in 1963 most countries had become independent  For the first time there are ‘politics’ in other parts of the world, no longer colonial power and subjects, now these subjects are citizens  Ex: Africa was in the domain of anthropology but not a place to study politics, but many graduate students and political scientists were ‘inspired’ by decolonization o Driven by economic growth: rise in GDP, end of WW2 world economy took off, extreme growth existed even in poor countries (ex: Turkey, Latin America), lead to infrastructure change  Urbanization, Literacy, Political Participation, Media  Move from tradition to modernity  Many researches who went out into the world saw the world through the lens of modernity, underdeveloped= tradition, developed= modern  Reading: Transition in Turkey What are the features of tradition 1. Isolation (ex: Balgat is only 8 km from the city but it takes 2 hours to get there, most villagers don’t leave the village and they are self-sufficient, live on the products of their own farm) 2. Lack of Information (Balgat has only radio, which is heavily controlled by the chief) 3. The Chief himself (represents hereditary forms of power, sense of control even during the interview) exemplifies obedience, courage and loyalty which are traditional Turkish values, his mindset is focused on what he has personal experience with o There is no physical (people don’t leave the village) or social mobility (social status) o The chief and the people f the village of the lack of empathy, the inability to see yourself in another position than what you are in o Chief and people of the village resists change and values homogeneousity, cannot accept difference POL201YY1: Sept. 27, 2010 o Tradition stands in the way of development and modernization, must be overcome in order for modernity to gain foot hold o The Grocer: different from people of the village (refer to reading)…has modern trait of empathy, psychically mobile, not tolerated by the people of the village  Spring of 1950 Lerner and other researchers collected information demonstrating that rural Turkey had a persistent traditional mindset, he tried to prove that but in between this the Turkish government was taken by the Democratic party o Tries to figure out why this has happened, becomes obsessed with the grocer, he is the hero, the visionary  1954 Lerner goes back to Balgat, it has drastically changed Balgat: What are the traits of modernity 1. Transportation o It now takes half an hour to get there, there is now a bus service and people not travel back and forth between the village and the city quite often, most men work in factories now so they do to the city daily 2. Market system now that the farmers have become wage earning factory workers, they spend the money o More retail stores (7 grocery stores, even the chiefs sons own stores) o The Chief no longer ‘knows everyone’ 3. Urbanization: Balgat has been incorporated into Ankara o People now have access to information and can make their own interpretation, many people have their own radio, more sources of media, more information available 4. Political participation is another trait of modernity  The way democracy drives to modernity, but before democracy Turkish citizens had to reject tradition (by voting for the opposition party)….Why did they vote for the opp
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