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Political Science
Sophia Moreau

POL200Y1: Sept. 20, 2010 The Industrial and Pre-industrial Revolution  The politics of development and the process of development in England  Economic and market society is a new phenomenon and slow to develop, took roughly 600 years…started with trading and merchants  Three ways of organization: tradition, command and market o Tradition: historically based, to take the profession of their fathers and ancestors, works because it has worked because, no innovation o Command: central planning, bureaucratic decisions makers, decide input output, resource use, production and distribution very little change in circumstances  Notheparate economic sphere or organization, subordinate to politics and social life (pre19th or 19 century) o The feudal system: needed to be overcome and undermined to establish the market  System of hierarchy, social relations, static and rigid  Demonstrates the relationship between lords and serfs was social not economic, dependency on one another  A way of thinking about what the market economy is  Labour, land and property is not a commodity…in the market they must become commodity  Labour: serfs could not sell their labour, could not move  Land: not considered outside of the social context, piece of territory they were attached to socially and politically, could not sell it, not a source of wealth  Property: (does not include land) wealth not turned into capital, not invested, spent on jewels, spices, products  These are the three reasons that the breakdown of the feudal system lead to market system  Agricultural system: manors, shared with lord and serfs (who could use common land), low productivity, th  Enclosure process privatization of local land (taking of common lands) in the 18 century, story of the commodification of land, land from birth right and social reproduction to economic value, legalized and enforced (by state and government), leads to extreme conflict over a century o General enclosures act of 1801: supports enclosure of property, government is taking away public property o Why did the lords enclose lands? Main reason increased productivity of the land, number of inventions that made land more productive, concentrated into the hands of a few leading to investments…before this surplus and productivity was not a priority  Inventions: the seed drill, thressing machine, crop rotation (clover, put minerals back into fields no fallow periods), the plow, etc  Selective breeding: Mendel (productive seeding)  Known as the agricultural revolution, increased productivity, massive increase in the production of food, precondition of industrial revolution POL200Y1: Sept. 20, 2010 Important social and economic effects of enclosure, mainly 2 th 1. Enclosures forced people off the land and created a labour force, course of the 18 century people are compelled, yet free to sell their labour people flocked to towns and cities 2. Increased food production, first time most people don’t have to be involved in agriculture, surplus can be used to feed factory workers  Industrial revolution 1750s- 1850s o Productions was mechanised, surplus, labour sold, transportation was revolutions, foreign exchange, people bought instead of produced the goods they used …changed the physical geography of the land over a short period of time o First innovations/ factories were in textiles, before 1760 textiles were mainly domestic done by women and children, long gruelling process, no common standard done through a putting out process by merchants  The ‘flying shuttle, the jenny’ (spin dozens of threads)  1769: ‘The Waterframe’ (stretched the cotton before spinning) greater than what human force and labour could do  Archright: waterpowered factory located in Comfrod, employed more than 600 workers (women and children)  One invention creates the need for another invention, one machine cannot function without the component parts (forward and backward linkages in textiles not necessarily in other fields as well)  Thousands of inventions, in a very short period of time, massive productivity increase  Britain first created a patent system….could make money therefore more incentive to invest time and money (class of people who identified themselves as inventors and investors) o Crucial role of the government in creating a market  Changes in the way work was performed (the domestic systems disappeared replaced by the factory system) o small mills, water-powered, near river side before the invention of steam engine, working condition
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