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Political Science
Sophia Moreau

POL201Y1: Oct. 18, 2010 Imperialism and Dependency Modernization theory  Lenin: ‘there is no art of the world that has not been colonized/unoccupied…division of world among super power is complete  Monopoly Capitalism: Argues that it is a distortion of capitalism because it is not free, like capitalism should be  Colonialism is resource extraction…colonies are costly and politically damaging, so why didn’t superpowers just compete buy raw materials, because capitalism is already on decline. o Dependent on cheap source of raw material is for market, therefore it is important to have a colony  Why colonize? Exert influence and religion but resource extraction was the main reason  Fundamental critique of modernization theory: Extraction of raw materials for the use of other nations sets up system of exploitation…lasting relationship that can explain what’s happening today  Basic building blocks of modernization theory? o Built on division of the world into tradition or modern societies  Tradition societies follow societies that they feel are already modern but the problem is that this sets know standard for true modernity o Problem with modern societies is that when they do out to find tradition societies they have an intrinsic idea in mind already and that is what they seek in places that are more likely to have it  Lerner: His theory was wrong because he basically thought that hierarchical rigidity could not be changed  Tradition societies don’t have predictive power….Lerner’s view was the basic view of traditional society How does modernization theory uses traditional modernity bifurcation?  The traditional modern dichotomy is in the middle of modernization theory…modern is a model, what was the moving force to countries that are now developed o Industrialization (agricultural revolution, urbanization) o External stimulus is needed for later modernization countries (copy the modern institutions of the early developers)  Foreign aid and media required  Modernization theorists argue that those in traditional societies are not rational like modern societies, traditional do things on the basis on belief and assumption  Unit of analysis for modernization theorists: country , groups even individuals (Lerner) POL201Y1: Oct. 18, 2010 Dependency Theory  Development and underdevelopment emerge simultaneously  Development if the core produces the underdevelopment of the periphery  Argue that tradition vs. modernity are not useful categories of analysis, and should not be divided as such  Modernity takes different forms in different countries depending on if the country is situated in the core of periphery and whether they provide or use the raw materials  Concerned with the way particular parts if the work entranced in the world system  Basic mechanisms for unequal trades is between exporter of raw materials : secondary goods are more expensive that primary goods, therefore countries that export primary goods are th victims of unequal trade, they are getting poorer and poorer, this can be traced to the 16 century (Dutch east India company) colonization did this  For the development of some countries depends on the underdevelopment of other countries o Ex: European modernization and industrialization was dependent on resource exploitation of African and L. America  Dependency theorists level of analysis was different from modernization theory, the failure of a country to contribute to development was due to internal processes (media, literature, institutions, etc) for dependency theorist it is because of the whole world system (countries don’t have the ability to develop because of the development of other countries)  Structural explanation: modernization theories look to behavioural theories but dependency theorists look to structural inequality that governs global economic change not human attitudes, behaviours and
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