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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Sophia Moreau

POL201Y1-Oct. 4, 2010  Imperialism: process of maintaining an empire, by force political collaboration, social and political factors o Africa was affected by it in the late 19 and early 20 century  After de-colonization Africa is defined by its poor political state and only a few nations have been able to maintain a democratic government  The establishment of European culture severely affected Africa’s social and political infrastructure  Imperialism also brought with it Christianity o 460 million people/ 45% of Africa is Christian, it took away from Africa’s traditional beliefs o A large part of Africa is also Muslim Colonialism  What explains persistent wide disparities in wealth?  64 countries were previously colonies, many of them poor today o Correlation between former colonies and poverty Nigeria: did not become Nigeria until after colonization; during the ‘scramble for Africa’ colonizers separated indigenous people Pre colonizing conditions: Political systems:  Political systems are different in the north and south of Nigeria o South there is the Aruba clan, they had chief/kings but they had very little power because there was a decentralization of power  means less resistance when colonial powers will come, no single united army. Little extractive possibility (resource extraction from their population) cannot collect taxes, no way of coercing there population and raise armies o North, Sokoto caliphate, large centralised for the most part common religion of Islam, had some economic development and have some resistance to colonial rule, had some extractive power  The differences between north and the south greatly shaped there conditions today Slave Trade: th  Involved in the slave trade since 16 century, some identify this as the reason underdevelopment persists until today Low Technology:  Agricultural tools are basic hand tools, ploughing tools non-existent  Eventually has a textile export capacity, kano cloth POL201Y1-Oct. 4, 2010 Traits of the colonial state Indirect rule  Invented by Lord Lugard, practise of ruling through chiefs which instil loyalty, were able to keep a portion of the taxes they collected, and if they failed to comply they would be removed  Colonialism gives them the power that they lacked before to coerce there population, they are representative of the colonial power Minimal state  The reason many colonial powers practise indirect rule, they were not willing to spend money on having their own people rule the states  The ability to tax is a symbol of holding power, monopolization  The population is ta
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