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pol201 lec 04 colonialism.docx

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Political Science
C Jung

Colonialism October 1 , 2013 Model of the Industrial Revolution Move from tradition to modernity Process of westernization and democratization Few countries have followed the model below Not generalizable across the Globe Factory employment  Production of surplus  Economic specialization Urbanization  Literacy  Media participation Union organization  Political organization  Demands for universal suffrage (democ) Question: What explains persistent wide disparities in wealth? European Colonies 64 counties of the world are former colonies Among poorest countries in world Correlation between former colonial status and present poverty What is the causal relationship between two? Why did colonialism lead to poverty and underdevelopment? Nigeria Nigeria does not become Nigeria until colonization Boundaries of present-day Africa are boundaries are based on colonial boundaries They were not based on any prior communities Conditions in Nigeria prior to Colonization Important to be attentive to starting conditions Differences in contemporaries per capita income based on starting How far they had to travel and how much they’ve had to overcome 3 Features of Pre Colonial Nigeria 1. The political system Different in North and South South Ruled by Yoruba Kingdoms; shared, indirect, personal rule Not centralized so Kingdom doesn’t have much extractive capacity It is easy for Colonial power to penetrate North Ruled by caliphate, was large and stable Was able to engender economic activity and offer resistance to colonial rule Colonialism is going to have different effects with lasting implications Regional divisions in the independent state 2. The slave trade West Africa was involved in slave trade from 16 century onward Loss of the most productive segment of the population Large parts of Africa are still under populated Still continues to undermine productivity 3. Technological capacity The main econ activity is food production Primary tool was the Hand Hoe Agricultural invention didn’t depend on any technological innovation Nigeria would eventually develop textile industry Still rudimentary by comparison in what was happening in Industrial Rev The effect of the Colonial State Indirect rule Colonial practice of ruling through Chiefs Used them to tax, provide law and order and ensure loyalty Paid Chiefs by allowing them to keep portion of taxes from subjects Had power and authority of colonial government behind them Many Chiefs refused; when they did they were replaced by bought ones Lasting impact was the creation of tribalism and despotic local rule This re directed power rather than local legitimacy and support of followers Transforms ethnicity in Africa; the way that ethnicity and power works Where once the relation between Chiefs power depended on relations with people His legitimacy depends completely on the Colonial government Power dynamic is flipped by indirect rule Minimal state British were not particularly interested in governing Nigeria, or most colonies Not willing to spend money on civil servants or training for bureaucracy Not many social services available, not really a state in place, no government Colonial state mainly extracts taxes from population, no services in return Taxes forms a very useful proxy for measure of how extensive a bureaucracy is It’s a proxy for how legitimate the state is, how much capacity it has and so on In Nigeria, extracts very little profits from individual taxation In stead they tax imports a
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