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POL201Y1 (221)
C Jung (55)


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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
C Jung

SEPTEMBER 24 , 2013 MODERNIZATION - Started conducting research outside of NA after the 1950s o 3 Major Impulses caused this change in Political though  1) Cold War  1950s 5-7 years after WWII  2 powers viewed world and tried to divide it between democracy and communism  US- what will make more countries democratic? Was the major question that was researched  A lot of funding for research and graduate work  Most notably from the Ford foundation (look up)  Came previously from US government  Cold war creates this background!  2) Decolonization  started with India in 1947  most colonies had separated in 1950s  poli sci students realized that there was politics in unknown places  Africa: people would go to study anthropology previously  1950s students inspired by decolonization in India  ***captures imagination of young scholars  expression of solidarity with black civil rights by going to Africa  3) Economic Growth  after WWII economy took off  3 world countries made huge strides  increases in Urbanization  analysts saw passing of traditional society/shifting to modernity - Lerner Reading o Starts in Turkey  Small village known as Balgat  Features (Markers of Tradition  1) Isolation  8 km from Ankara but 2hrs to get there (no form of transportation)  don’t work for wages  live within there means  buy few things from the Grocer but other than that live off the supplies of there land  Chief only person other than the grocer that has left village and that was to fight two wars  2) Communication  one radio set  chief interprets radio for listeners  information only comes from one place  3) chief  ridged and inherited hierarchy of power  controls who interviewer speaks to  concerned for status differential o No physical mobility or social mobility o Fixed place within the village (no chance to move up or to prosper) o Interview:  Chief doesn’t answer most questions  Part of the reasons chief fails to answer is because the chiefs mindset is traditional  Traditional mindset lacks ability to imagine alternative realities  Cant contemplate other places to live or hypothetical ideas like (what if you were president)  Lack of toleration for difference  Chief resists change & difference  Lerner creates archetype for tradition  Ways tradition stands in the way ^  Grocer:  Familiar with Media and culture  He enjoys news of the world  Active participant in the market  Internalizes the market dynamic (ie. Desire to make money and move up in the world)  He wants to travel  He would live in America if he could  Strong deas if he was president of Turkey  Physically mobile but also socially mobile  Not a popular figure in the village  Lerner thinks that his unpopularity is due to certain characteristics: dresses differently, thinks differently o Shunned/Lerner thinks he is the agent of change o * Spring of 1950 Lerner goes to Turkey*  summer some peasants turn up to vote against party in office  they behaved in modern ways by doing this  how did this happen?  Key is the grocer  Harbinger of change  Sees grocer 4 years later (1954)  Balgat has gone through sudden change  Takes 30 minutes to travel to Ankara now  Many people travel every single day to work in the city  Most jobs are in the city (factories) o Modern Personality  Rational  Positivist spirit  Goal oriented  Emphatic  Mobile > physically (More around) / socially  Opinionated  Educated/confident something to say (opinions of major issues)  Aspirations o Lerner: Modernization/Transition To Modern Society  Points to new roads  Western clothes o Modernity is a package: Litaracy/political participation/ media participation/urbanization o These ^ are both an index and an agent of change o The signals of change and the things making the change happen - Urnanization > Literacy (Read to get jobs) ^ (both way) Civil society < media participation (increases) desire to know more things Economic autonomy^ - active agents of a political society - Lerners theory o Idea that there is a psychological profile of those who get modernization started o As GNP increases so does democracy October 15 , 2013 IMPORT SUBSTITUTION INDUSTRIALIZATION - four strategies of economic development o manufacture export  build up a strong manufacruting base  produce goods  export goods o forced capitalization  low wages and forced savings  reserves in capital  in order to have capital to generate domestic investment o primary product export  agricultural and mining products  not improved or generated into the final product  cotton as opposed to a pair of pants o ISI  Build up the manufacturing sector by shutting down the imports of manufactured goods  If you want to start implementing this strategy you shut down your borders, cut off imports and you start to jump start your own economic base  Heavy industry: iron, and steel heavy chemicals and automobiles o History spans the 20 century  Generated by WW1  Most economies, remade the economies for militart needs  They changed the focus of what they were producing  So there were lots of shortages in wealthy countries  But also shortages in countries who relied on said countries for imports  Responded by going without and not having those products, or by producing products domestically  And WWI is followed closely by the great depression  So you end up having a long period where the manu sector is either oriented to war or is in the middle of the great depression
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