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Lecture 2

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Political Science
Robert Brym

Lecture 2 – POL201Y September 17 , 2013 th th frPOL201Y – September 17 , 2013 The making of Economic Society and the Industrial revolution 3 ways of organizing production and distribution of goods 1. Tradition - Historical way, ancestral following (same way century after century) - Trade gills - Resistant to innovation 2. Command - Central planning - Soviet union (5 year plans) (determined scope of distribution and production by 5 year cycles) 3. Market - Organizing social and political life - Feudal system what need to be undermined in order to create this market system - Hierarchy, static - Relations of social obligations to one another (not economic interdependence) - Top of hierarchy did not invest in the system (not incentive to produce more than they could use, not to reinvest but to but luxury items Feudal system - Labour was not a commodity o Could not sell their labour (received housing food protect for labour) - Land was not a commodity o People didn’t sell their land and didn’t accumulate more land than they could use - Property was not a commodity o Nothing that could be turned into capital Agriculture changes - Open field system: all the field were connected - The commons owned by the lords but could be used by everyone Enclosure movement - Slow and irregular th th - Started in 13 c complete till 19 c - privatization of common land - Transferred open fields to private property - Commodification of land Lecture 2 – POL201Y September 17 , 2013 th - General enclosure act 1801: makes enclosing the land legal (allows lord to take land back and put it to private use, serfs struggle because land was being taken away from them what was once common now belonged to the lords) Role of the government in the movement of making the ownership of private property legal, market would not have formed without aid of government Adam smith – market the natural way of organizing production General enclosure act of 1801 Improved farming techniques, invention of the mechanization of agriculture Have access to innovation that they can use to make the land more productive (more incentive to own land, land is more valuable by using these inventions, increased productivity) Learn crop rotation (can now use the land year round and year after year) (increase understanding of nutrients crops take from land use land productively) Agricultural revolution > industrial revolution - Land turned into commodity, can make capital off of AR 2 dramatic changes 1. Enclosures forces people of the land, once privatized serfs didn’t have access to land anymore , some turned into labour force on the farm,, movable labour force - Start to move to large industrial centers and factories, no people to work in factories because people tied to land, enclosure act: people no longer tied to land forced to sell land and work in farms, turn labour into a commodity 2. Increase food production - First time in history a food surplus - Majority of people don’t have to be engaged in producing the food they will eat - Surplus food used to feed factory workers, - Surplus sold to those who are outside the production of food IR - Production mechanized - Food surplus (used as capital and reinvested into production) - People started to buy most of the goods they consumed - Subsistence production no longer (now consuming things they didn’t produce) First innovations/factories - Were textile factories Lecture 2 – POL201Y September 17 , 2013 th - Before manufactured in homes long and labour intensive - Organization complicated and very inefficient before innovation - Putting out system distribute raw material to spinners and they were scattered all over the country side - The end product quality was varied to standard production - Hargreaves spinning Jenny (1765) - Arkwright’s Water Frame (1769) (lead to factories needed factories that could use inventions, employed women and children, new speed , faster than human production) - One invention spurs the development of another development - Invention dependent on one another (to keep up) - One invention produced lopsidedness (always needing something to aid in the working of one invention, one invention alone is not enough to speed up the production process) - IR produced thousands of inventions n a short period of time - Improved the quality of what was produced - Patent system (leg
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