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Lecture 5

Lecture 5.docx

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Political Science
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Robert Brym

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Lecture 5 – October 8 , 2013 th POL201 – imperialism and dependency Lenin - Division of super powers is complete - No country left unclaimed - Monopoly capitalism (distortion of capitalism) - The aim of colonialism is not only to extract resources but to also control those resources and avoid completion - Capitalism is already on the decline - Extending markets depends on selling cheap products and to have cheap products need cheap resources - Relations between colonialism and development/markets - Resources extraction is the driving force behind colonialism - Fundamental critique of modernization o Initial relationship, extraction of resources sets up a lasting system of exploitation Modernization - Build on the division of the world into traditional and modern societies - What counts as modernity o Derive what counts from observing characters of countries they consider to e modern (economic and social life) (US and Canada) (problem because there is no independent standard by which to judge modernity) o Tradition (everything that is not modern) - Modern society o Social mobility o Urban o Rational people - Traditional society o Hierarchical rigidity o Rural o Irrational people (basis of spiritual and cultural beliefs) - Modernization theory uses tradition as both an expression and a cause of underdevelopment - Categories like modern and traditional don’t have much predictable value - The modern is not only modern but also a model - The unseen hand of the market (people who were driven by the profit motive) - Profit motive drove the industrial revolution - Focus on the channels of diffusion for modernity o Policy implication – what we need is more contact more foreign education, foreign aid, media saturation in the developing part of the world - Unit of analysis : the individual country/society/human being - What values(attitudes and values) people hold can tell us whether a society is traditional or modern Lecture 5 – October 8 , 2013 th POL201 – imperialism and dependency Dependency theory - Argument that the development of the core produces the underdevelopment of the periphery countries - ***see slides online - Argue that the tradition modernity clarity of modernization theory is not conceptual useful - Traditional and modernity not useful concepts o At a period of time all countries are modern o Modernity looks different in different countries o Takes different forms in different countries because countries are differently inserted into the world (core or periphery) (depends on the if they are importers or exporters of raw materials) - Development and underdevelopment is a modern condition - Reason some countries are poorer than other and has not gone through industrialization is because of the way they have been inserted into the world system o unequal trade of raw materials and manufactured goods o countries that tend to produce and export raw materials are victim of unequal terms of trade (sell things that are cheaper than what they have to buy) - Dutch East Indian Company - Development of some countries depends on the development of others - Can’t have industrial revolution without underdevelopment of other countries because industrial revolution depended on cheap materials to manufacture Dependency vs. modernization difference 1. Level of analysis a. For modernization theories it’s the individual society (each country/society/individual) (whether fails or not depends on issues within country) (what happens inside the country that decide whether the country develops and adopts a democracy) b. For dependency theorist the unit of analysis is the world system, how the world works as a single system, look at the interaction of the countries within the world, signle society don’t hold key to its own development, terms of t
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