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Lectures from september to November 29th

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Political Science
Melissa Levin

Lecture 2 September 20, 2011 Navy had superiority in terms of capturing land, they found alternatives routes in Asia in the ottoman trade They explored the atlantic (the Portuguese and Europeans), at this point Africa was not yet colonized. The Columbus voyage among the Asia but landed in the Americas, the mistake led to global super powers. The adjustment of trade routes were westward and eastward, colonization was led by Portugal and the Spaniards It involved stealing where ever they went, they used labor on the indigenous people, demise of por and spaniards was due to the cost of colonialism After England, Netherlands, and France joined the race and they started to colonize, it began the rise of triangular trade The transport of African slaves was used to build, also replaced with sugarcane. And it was racially exclusive, it made this trade different was with high numbers and how it was only black concentrated slaves Trans-Atlantic slave trade Plantation Esp. textiles Rise of merchant class or commercial bourgeoisie; joint stock companies, move slaves from point A and point B, insurance of shipment. Slave trade began in 1500 and worse was 1750 to 1850 this was the peak of slave trade. England becomes the superpower of slave trade. Institutional architecture of industrial capitalism Slave trading and industrialization It took 600 years for Europe to transform, under feudal system its not possible the market can emerge and Feudalism is: system of hierarchy cant become a lord through hard work one must be born into one, inherited privilege, social obligation, static and rigid, lords and serfs, and labor, land, and property were not commodified Feudal is like you are born in one place and die in that place, man is for the most part self sufficient. Lords with money in capital or production. Labor is not a commodity nor is land or property meaning serf cant move nor they get a wage The enclosure movement: fields held in common over much of Europe since the middles ages, enclosure to the privatization of common land: from subsistence to productive use, a story of the commodification of land, and enabled through government intervention. It started in the 1200, enclosure is like privatizing land and held by other people Open fields went from public to private, and land becomes very important in the creation of wealth. The enclosure were legalized by the courts in the 1800, we have a tendency to naturalize the system we use. Capitalism is not natural and the enclosure movement could not have become the hot bid for the industrialization for it have been not for land The land ownership becomes concentrated and only held by a few, the to make land productive you have all these inventions Effects of the enclosures: Forced people off the land and produced labour, increased food production; for the first time people did not have to produce the food they eat and on the serfs the social relation between the serf and landlords do not exist anymore. They turned labour into a commodity. This is how groundwork was initiated for the industrial revolution. Most people now bought the goods they used In a space of hundred years the world completely changes, the first innovation of industrial revolution were textile production Textile production feuded the industrial revolution, textile production was totally exploitative among the women and children. Blank shuttle, water frame, with all these changes and one innovation would expose the deficiencies. England government encouraged innovation and production, in a domestic system you cannot have an organized class. Production of working class and people were isolated from one another Through production the capital this time was used. 1780n-1850 was the industrial revolution required? Some say yes and the conditions were horrible but it might have been tough in the beginning and later it was beneficial The industrial revolution happened in Britain first because: bounded by the sea, colonies, internal river and canal systems, no internal tariffs - nationally integrated, enclosures, open social system, patent system, scientific age, banking system, culture, slavery, confluence of interest between government and the people, and confluence of natural resources and social innovations Industrial revolution and triangular trade: It puts the modern idea on the table. The end of the peak of the industrial revolution made hardening of race, in development terms we speak of economy With evolution comes conquests and it validates Europe to globally conquer the world for the sake of Christianity and scientific racism coincide with the height of Africa The need to end brutality we must end it but we have to also colonize and seems very contradictory. Here we see the development of language The era of development, contemporary development is traced to the end of second world war, Marshall plan: the primary plan of the US to rebuild Europe and repelling communism after WW2 Europe was trying to avoid the mistakes of the first world war, where Germans had lost everything because they had to pay other countries for their victory for the damage done 30 billion was given to Europe to help rebuild it and the international banks as a result developed from this. We forget the colonialism and instead try to help the third world or the developing countries. Defining development: the 3 main views of it. Lecture 2 September 27, 2011 Colonialism Understand the context through which the developing world is produced Understand the consequences and legacies of colonial rule for indigenous social formations (if development is respectful or not) Understand the impact of colonialism on thinking about development What is colonialism? Imperialist quest to own the world, domination and arbitrariness, subordination of indigenous, enforcement of rules and laws, occupation destruction. What is colonialism? System of formal domination of the social, political, cultural life of one society by another Neo-colonialism: the process by which rich, powerful, developed states use economic political or other means to exert pressure on poor, less powerful. underdeveloped states subordinate government is legally independent Ideas and expression of idea Imperialism is the idea of expansion and taking over of the world and colonialism becomes the executer. Company colonialism that exerts pressure on particular parts around the world, over time becomes transformed into the formal accusation of power by either a small group (man on the spot) or by sectors Colonialism is not new to human history, one group has always tried to dominate another, central rome has become dominant in conquering other countries Wages of discovery; it became neo centric way, there were numerous discoveries happening all the time since people were always moving to new places The age of discovery is the age of discovery for Europeans. The initial motives for voyages of discovery is due to politico-religious and economical and characterized by political brutality and economics of plunder demographic collapse and demise of indigenous institutional systems slavery The Spanish and Portuguese set up the trade posts, the beginning of interaction between Spaniards and the Asian Africa became a stopping point for shipments, and mistake for them is the conquest of the Americas Labor practices established a collapse, small pox wiped out indigenous people across the Americas, also the Spaniards worked people to death, only for the desire to take. Strong centralized states collapsed and collapsed due to dissipation in less than 100 years it went from 250000 people to one million The dissmation left the door open for continued plunder, also a massive settlement took place by the Europeans primarily from Spanish and the Portuguese, There was a triangular trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americas, also bringing many slaves from Africa to work the lands Slaves for racialize states, and large population of slaves living in one large place. THe impact of slavery is not only on America but also for the Africa, 10 million Africans were taken to the America, middle passage is the voyage between Africa and America The consequences for Africa become clear for demographics, where many slave men were stolen, in this process lands were destroyed and increased centralized states, increased militarized, and instability due fleeing people Spain and port are joined by germans, Dutch, and france and competition resumed among them, eventually these places lost control to these slaves. And it was done through charter companies Charter Companies: Second wave of colonialism - expand financial base, raise capital, private investment in the service empire Eg Dutch East India company (controlled spice market in Indonesia and Malaysia) English East Asia company the dominant (dominated south Asia) From company investment to local subjugation: evolving strategies of rule English used rivalries in Bongol to take control, excess to markets and products, this changed the way the English charter company operated, it became a formal position of one group, the British Charter company moved to use textation to fund it self The East Indian area grew the dominance of the British, they built a railway, lame ways of developing infrastructure in foreign places It was build in the interest of themselves for the high quality product for low cost, and no ties were developed They did not integrate these economies, an export oil economy was produced, all the profits were moved out of the country Frame work for indirect rule was produced, wanted its colonies to subjugate it self, and was done through patronage Motives for conquest Leninist argument: high imperialist search for and creation of new markets BUT: limited investments made; too econ
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