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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Sophia Moreau

Democratization Waves of Democratization Huntington defines a WAVE : group of transition from non-democratic to democratic regime that occur within a specified period of time and that significantly outnumber transition in the opposite direction during that period. In such waves, some other authoritarian regimes that do not democratize nevertheless become liberalized. Democratization may also occur in democracy themselves, improving rule of law and civil liberty. th First wave: a long wave, lasted from 17-19 cent. Democracy achieved through long social and economic processes that culminated in revolution: people rose from below to demand for election and right to choose their own representative The cause of democratization is modernization: demands for voice and political participation arose as a result of literacy, education, urbanization and the rise of middle class. E.g. Britain and France Second wave after WW2 (1958) Countries become democratic by two ways: 1. Imposition: Germany, Italy and Japan had other countries impose on them democracy 2. Decolonization: formation of new countries [e.g. India, Nigeria] Third wave: begins Apr 19, 1974 Portugal been under fascism for more than half the century: Portuguese dictatorship was overthrown in a military coup. The armed forces was split into Conservative moderate and Marxist
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