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POL201 Summaries weeks 1-4.docx

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Political Science
Melissa Levin

POL201 Review Notes Lecture 1: Introduction Labelling the 3 World  Regardless of the actual label, the fact that it exists is significant o Can provide existing beliefs and practices legitimacy that it would not normally be afforded o Can construct notions of solidarity / homogeneity between nations placed in the group rd  Label is of little relevance today, 3 world ‘blocs’ or groups have little cohesiveness or tangible power  Countries are ultimately self-interested and view cooperation and solidarity as a secondary concern Lecture 2: What is Development? Abolition Movement: Mobilises against slavery based upon the ideals of the French revolution regarding what is acceptable for a progressive society.  Coincides with a hardening of scientific racism: White Man’s Burden to civilise the native savages Development: 3 main definitions / perspectives:  Mainstream, Conventional View: Significant and measurable economic growth and the emergence of social, economic and political institutions.  Alternative, Human-Needs View: See below  Radical, Post-Modern View: Façade for continued global domination by the North Human Development: measuring a society’s development by human well-being, rather than by wealth or economic growth  Kerala and Cuba are success stories in achieving high levels of economic development relative to economic growth  Represents a major challenge to neoliberal globalisation as Human Development goals are pursued independently of economic growth o Increasing public goods and services o Decreasing Inequality  Decentralisation: Devolving powers to local bodies for local development o Still undetermined whether this is a successful strategy Feudalism: Rigid system of hierarchy and inherited privilege based on social obligation. Labor, land and property were not treated as commodities. Industrial Revolution: The rapid development of industry in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the introduction of machinery.  Enclosure: The privatization of common land from subsistence to productive use. Was a key component in providing the foundation for the Industrial Revolution to take place.  Patent system helped provide incentives for innovation  Transatlantic Slave Trade provided a vast number of raw materials that helped Western Europe Industrialise Mercantilism: Belief that there is a fixed quantity of trade in the world and that controlling it would enable countries to become more powerful. Provided a powerful rational for Colonialism and a redefinition  Marxists viewed this as fundamental accumulation Structural Transformation: Refers to a reduction in a nation’s dependency on agricultural commodities in favour of manufacturing commodities. Is not known if it is caused by growth or vice versa  Structuralism: Focuses on specific barriers to development and how to overcome them; an economic policy that blames chronic inflation primarily on foreign trade dependency, insufficient local production, and political struggles over government contracts. o Neostructuralists emphasised the role of technology / technological change and selective import protection o Proposal that selective protection may be used to encourage the development of industries that are subject to returns to scale.  Neoliberal: Expectation that with free markets and privatised industry, exports will pave the way for economic growth which will over time cause structural transformation o Heavily adopted by Latin America and the Caribbean o A correlation between exports, growth and structural transformation exists  Correlation has not proved causation  Demonstrates the fallacy of ahistorically universalising, trends are country specific and structural transformation only happens if domestic institutions support the policies being undertaken to achieve it.  Where structural transformed exports causes growth, LDCs should be encouraged to develop the non-primary sector to their advantage Lecture 3: Colonialism and the colonial state Colonialism: System of formal domination of the social, political, cultural life of one society by another  Neo-colonialism: the process by which rich, powerful, developed states use economic, political or other means to exert pressure on poor, less powerful, underdeveloped states Waves of Colonialism 1. Voyages of Discovery: Simple plunder of resources, demographic collapse and demise of indigenous institutional systems. Use of slavery for forced labour 2. Charter Companies: Expansion of financial base, raise capital and private investment to serve the interests of the empire. Results in further subjugation Visions of Colonialism (Cooper: Colonial Africa)  Stability was achieved when it stayed between these two visions a. Treating people as objects to be use b. Use of political and cultural power to remake Africa in Europe’s image  France sought t
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