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POL201Y1 (221)
C Jung (55)


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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
C Jung

1) Cold War began in earnest in 1950 • the US saw the world as democratic vs. Communist • saw demoractic countries as automatic allies • lots of funding for research in graduate work about countries understudied 2) decolonization ◦ starting in 1948 with India, most colonies were able to become independent 3) economic growth • after WWII, the world economy took off • rapid ecnomic growth fuelled by and produces (circular process) urbanization, literacy, political participation, media engagement, mobility • saw the passing of traditional society • modernization was the theory everyone looked to prove, see evidence of Theory of Modernization • defined development as a process of modernization • underdeveloped societies are traditional societies; developed societies are modern societies • modernization is the theory that explains the process of development Lerner – links transition of development to democracy • small village in Turkey, Balgat • demonstrates that Balgat is a traditional village, subsistence labour, make what they consume, not wage labourers, not participants in a market economy ◦ 1) feature of tradition: isolation ◦ 2) absence of information – 1 radio, Chief invites select ppl to listen to 1 program, the official news program by the government. After the program is over, the Chief interrprets the program, tells ppl how to understand it, what parts are important. ◦ 3 feature of tradition: The Chief ▪ chooses who is interviewed, resists giving interviewer access to the poorest man b/c of status. No social mobility. Social status by hierarchy. ▪ Obedience and loyalty from traditional Turkish values ▪ he thinks and talks only about his own experience. Lerner argues that a person with a traditional mindset lacks ability to imagine alternatives to his own life. Callsthis a lack of empathy th ◦ 4 : lack of tolerance of different opinions. Chief resists change and difference • Grocer ◦ mobile, travels regularly to Ankara ◦ watches movies and reads the paper. Listens to the radio at coffee houses in Ankara, enjoys listening to the world news. Active participant in the market. ◦ Buys and sells things for a living. Internalizes the profit motive of the market – has desire to make money and be wealthy – trait of modernity. ◦ Wants to travel. Wishes he had a big grocery store in the city ◦ has strong ideas of what he would do if he were President of Turkey. Has ability to project himself into someone else's shoes. He's physically and psychically mobile. ◦ But he's not a popular figure in the village. Lerner says this is because he's different. His different ideas, style, dissatisfaction is not tolerated by the villagers. ◦ Lerner says in traditional societies, differences are not tolerated. Wants to position the Grocer as an agent of change. Ppl ask G what coffee houses to go to, what movies to see. • Traditional Turkish peasants had voted (expressed opinions) that were opposite of the dominant opinon (they voted for the opposition party) • in 1954, Balgat gone through stunningly fast transformation of modernization in 4 years. • 1) it takes less than 0.5hour to get there. Regular bus service to the city. Most ppl in vllage are now employed in the city. • Ppl are wage labourers, they buy what they use • population explosion – 50 houses to 500 houses. Chief doesn't know everyone in village anymore • urbanization: Balgat has become part of Ankara • has electricy and running water. • Over 100 radios, ppl have access to information. ◦ More information available (radio programming will have increased b/c more ppl have radios) ◦ can take in information in an unmediated way. • Political participation – everyone voted for opposition party. • Why did they vote for the Demokrat party? Lerner says the Grocer is the clue. • circularity problem: he says it's clear why you have rapid modernization process in Balgat. But how does it come about? Having a particular lens through which you're looking through the world affects and transforms what you think and see • Lerners theory of the modern personality ◦ rational ◦ positivist spirit ◦ goal ori
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