POL201 lec 2 18/09/2012 18:13:00
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The making of Economic Society and The Industrial Revolution
transformation from feudal economy to a market economy, took about 1300
-graph showing changes per capita. No change for several years and then
drastic change because of the industrial revolution.
Heilbroner – three ways of organizing the production and distribution of
production, distrivution, and the market.
Trade guilds – ensure goods are created the same way, fairness was key.
Soviet Union famous for 5 year plans. Bureaucrats made plans for
production and distribution in 5 year cycles. Determined how much, where it
was produced and distributed.
Market distribution – controlled by the social and political relations
determined how things would be organized economically.
The Feudal system - must be undermined for a market economy to be a
- is static and rigid.
Serfs were unable to move up in the ranks, they were tied to specific lords
and pieces of lands. > No market for surplus. No point in using money to
make money. No point to money. Money used mostly on luxury items.
In the feudal period there are three things that are important.
- labor is not a commodity, land is not a commodity, property is not a
labor is not a way to make money
Land is inherited
← wealth gets spent on luxury that has no capital, investment, etc.
Agriculture The breakdown of the feudal system in Great Britain is largely a part of the
before the 18 century had been the same throughout Europe > open field
system. Tragedy of the commons.
Enclosure system – privatization of common land> the commodification of
Legalized by the government (1801)
This shows government intervention for the purpose of producing a market.
Undermines the idea of the market of producing spontaneously in contrast to
people with the desire to barter and trade.
The state intervening in order to produce the conditions of trade.
Invention and the Mechanization of Agriculture
the main reason for enclosure was increased productivity of the land. For
many years farming was the same due to resources.
Machines made agriculture more productive. They also invent new seeds,
more productive, more resistant, etc.
Crop rotation, switch crops around for different nutrients > clover
The most important catalyst of the industrial revolution :
firs > the enclosures forced people off the land, the land is privatized and
the serfs are forced to move. Serfs are then transformed into a labor force.
People flock in large numbers to urban areas. The enclosures in turn create
land and labor as a commodity.
second > increase in food production. Generates the agricultural revolution (
inventions, machines, crop rotation) The majority of people do not need to
be engaged in the production of food to consume food. Surplus food can
then be sued to feed factory workers.
Surplus used as capital and reinvested in production. Goods were moved
around for market, people started to buy goods, selling labor for wages.
The textile industry
cloth was produced by a putting out system. Raw materials taken to peoples
houses(cotton, wool) of spinners and weavers. Variations of quantity and
Changes in this industry were already changing in the 1700’s.
Important because the textile industry was the engine for the industrial
revolution in the UK.
Inventions of the ‘jenny’ and the ‘water frame’ in 1765 and 1769. From the invention of the water frame the factory for textiles was invented.
this is the way in which one invention paves the way for another.
Patenting > inventions as a way to make money > crucial step in the
The factory worker and the working class.