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Reading: Modernization and Dependency- notes.doc

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Political Science
C Jung

MODERNIZATION AND DEPENDENCY: Alternative Perspectives in the Study of Latin American Underdevelopment- Valenzuela - post WWII- an effort to revitalize the economies of western nations - the creation of new nation states ( ethnic groups pursuing self determination following WWII- it was important for America to jump in and influence the establishment of liberal democratic regimes CENTRAL QUESTION: - why was there such a stark contrast in th developmental sequences of a few western countries and the rest of the world? - Modernization perspective: it is essential to consider the cultural characteristics of “ new” nations in determining their potential for development - Touches on the non-economic factors of development - Widespread economic stagnation in latin America post WWII - Comparing conceptual approaches of modernization/ dependency to latin America - Tradition and modernity = theoretical polarities - Convergence theories in modernization THE MODERNIZATION PERSPECTIVE: - Societies are thought to move from tradition to modernity - This idea that modernization is an inevitable road all countries will eventually take - The traditional society is variously understood to have a preponderance to ascriptive, particularistic, disuse affective patterns of action. Little social mobility, most primary economic activities, elitist and hierarchal sources of authority pg 537 - Modern: universalistic, achievement, merit based, specific, neutral orientations, complex occupational system, high rates of social mobility, secondary economic activities, rational legal sources of authority - In order to enter the world, traditional societies have to overcome norms and make way for social, economic and political transformations - Is it the transformation of institutions, or individuals themselves? - Primary source of change: innovations- rejection of procedures related to traditional institutions, adoptions of new ideas, techniques and values/ organizations pg 538 - “ mastering the model of the modern” - the view that the impetus to modernize in the now developed countries was the result of endogenous cultural and institutional transformations 538 - modernizing third world elites carrying their countries through modernization - vehicles for the transmission of modernity foreign aid, foreign educational opportunities, overseas business investments, mass media pg 539 - standardized American culture - the basic historical setting for modernization is a nation state - W. Moore “ modernization = the process of the rationalization of social behavior and social organization” - Rational behavior is not a universal human characteristic - Economically speaking, traditional peoples behave irrationally – not taking risks with capital and investing, being practical and risk- averse - Abandon traditional values and institutions LATIN AMERICA AND THE MODERNIZATION PERSPECTIVE: - American scholarship utilizes modernization theory to explain latin america’s underdevelopment - Puts the balme on traditional attitudes and institutions of the colonial past - Catholicism= irrational economic behavior, hierarchal social structure that promotes feudal social values - Lipset- puts the blame on a lack of entrepreneurial activity - Educational system socializes the population is a manner which impedes development - Latin American political systems do not act as integrating system- R. Scott pg 541 - You must alter the value system of the people - H Wiarda—latin America is untouched by social, economic, religious, political and intellectual revolutions THE DEPEDENCY PERSPECTIVE--- described as a primarily historical model - Focus of the internal constraints to industrialization - ASSUMPTIONS: - It is not limited to the domestic conditions of a country - It depends on history and its place in the worldwide political economic system that carries its origins in western Europe and later spread to European colonies across the world - The global system is inherently inequitable - The division of the world between core, periphery countries - The development of the periphery has a “ reflex” type of development- it is constrained by its incorporation into the global economic system - They are exploited by dominanted countries who require that periphery nations remain backwards - Historical dimension is important th - Unequal development of the world has its roots in 16 century Europe - Periphery provides necessary primary goods to industrialized, modernized countries in the west - International division of labour does not lead to comparative advantage and parallel development 545 - Core gain at the expense of periphery- zero sum arrangement - World capitalist system= interdependent- you all cannot be industrialized, you need traditional economies - Modernization theory implies that dependence analysts share the same view of humannature - It is not the concept of rationality and whether or not exists - Dependency theorists argue that there re certain structural foundations and incentive systems which produce different forms of behavior - It is not changes in attitude that facilitate industrializ
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