POL207Lecture 2.docx

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Political Science
Sebastian Baglioni

POL207 European Politics Prof.? Sept. 19,2012 Germany 1) Historical evolution 2) Understand its post-war situation 3) Analyze its political institutions 4) Identify its place in Europe and the world 5) Analyze contemporary debates Historical Evolution Political Evolution of Germany - From fragmentation to unification (1815-1817) o Like Italy it has a late unification of commerce o Only unified their territories around central party around late 17 th century - Prussia military campaign started to begin to dominate all other territories - Leadership of chancellor, conquering territories - Political authority of king of Prussia, by this means they gain a unification of Germany From Weimer Republic to the Third Reich (1913-1933) - Poland regains much of its territory - The Alsace Loraine moves back to France - By the end of first world war they forced a parliamentary democracy - After first world war it had a strong feeling of punishment o Treaty Versailles - Weimer republic didn’t have big roots or connect to people due to lack of tradition o Finding loop holes to solve crisis after crisis o Failed on itself because it was augmented by Hitler to form something more authoritarian - By the height of the war Germany loses most of its territories Division into West and East (1949(1955)) - East red army, west allies o Both controlling different territories o English north west, French south west, USA south east, and soviets north east  This explains why Berlin is center - By 1945 not clear what’s going to happen with Germany because that changes what happens with all of Europe - Soon all areas in west unify against the east (USSR)  1949 separation of west Germany and east Germany  1955 these states gained some sort of sovereignty  Elections, own government  West Germany will gain more power, and become more a normal player in the world  The east, Moscow kept tight control, follows what Moscow says Unification of Germany (1989/1990) - West Germany never gave up the idea of unity - Fall of Berlin wall o What has been lost due to the situation ? o What does the unification mean now? Post World War 2 Key factors for Germany (Main goal) – priority of integration and multilateralism (Germanys main goal) – gain recognition, trust worthy, and be included in negotiation, thus they are always in favor of integration, because that’s their strategy to regain trust in Europe (French view) – one sides wants to build something for Europe, while the other side they don’t want to another trade because a fear of being fooled over control - Partition o Separation of west and east in order to both sides to use, i.e. West (America) vs. communism - Security threat (cold war) o Berlin key center for spies during cold war - Lack of sovereignty o Using that to interact with Europe - Dependence of foreign markets o Cities were destroyed, industrial capacity wasn’t that destroyed though o High price in economic term o Geographic situation and industrial output was key to recovery of Europe o Without Germany it would have been very difficult to save Europe - Dependence of US for defense o Remilitarization o Very important that Germany is protected for cold war, it is crucial o USSR gains more power of moving to the west, if one ship falls the rest will follow o Ii cannot be lost to the soviets o American needs military power in Germany, incorporate it into strategy and NATO - The unification was very welcome from the German people, they want to regain the territory o The USSR was opposed and suspicious to this because didn’t want American control to come in, but Helmut kohl tried to show this wasn’t their only means of history Political Institutions of Germany Experience of Weimar republic and attempt to making a political framework was avoided - US and UK exerted a lot of power - A lot of leaders before the NAZI party returned into negotiations o Initially they were hated because of their opposition but now welcomed back o Needed to come back with new strategy o This by no means diminished the power of US or allies - The chancellor is head of government o This was created in constitutional framework o Equivalent to prime minister with probably little more power  All the chancellors were important in leading integration  Konrad Adenuer (1949-1963) Lead integration  Ludwig Wrhard (1963-1966) – economic boom, impact more on domestic side, solidifies economic recover  Kurt Kiesinger(1966-1969)  Willy Brandt (1969-1974) – with him adopted the oust politic, Germany stated a official diplomatic strategy to connect back to its territories, they don’t want be caught in the middle of war, wants to use influence to regain control  Wlater Sheel (1974)  Helmut Schmidt (1974-1982)  Helmut Kohl(1982-1998) - lead unification process  Gerhard Schroder (1998)-2005)  Angela Merkel (2005-) - Germany is now in a very important position o Moved from a very weak position to something very strong in such a short amount of time o Germany has proved itself to be trustworthy, does not follow its own interests - Democratic formal state, based on the basic law, not a constitution, why? o No constitution is due to partition, the rational to this is because Germany is not complete, its provisionary, this is not the permanent position for the rest of time o Remained so until today - Main institution is the chancellor - The President o A formal body, no real power in making decisions  Formality to passing laws and passing treaties, ceremonial  No real power in the classic sense o Lower House (Bundestag) and Upper House (Bundesrat) o LOWER HOUSE -  Election, for the people  The difference between the Weimer, you have the vote of no confidence, calls into question legitimacy of gov’t, they must call a election, and this was the way parties from extreme left and right abused the system  The change is that the vote of non-confidence is called the Constructive vote of non-confidence. You cannot call it without the majority. The idea is you can’t have a lack of gov’t. It  Trying to avoid instability of not being able to make new gov’t or majority - UPPER HOUSE - The representation is based on the lender (different territories) o Each lender forms a federation called Germany o Germany is given power by the lender (territories) o Members are appointed not elected o The chancoller does not pass laws Federal Constitutional Court - US wanted this court - Independent body, control gov’t - What ever law that is adopted by chancellor must go through scrutiny of
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