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Vichy France.docx

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Political Science
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Randall Hansen

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Vichy France- Review Exam - three sections - first is 20 percent and it is factual answers (Upper House in Germany is…) - short answer section, 5 out of 7 questions, defining and explaining key institutions, concepts, etc. - two standard essay questions, the welfare state is the end of Europe - lecture is most of the essay, use readings to fill in the gaps in information Europe in the Shadow of its Past 1: Vichy - The history of world war two is politics in Europe o To do with pain associated with deportations, concentration camps etc. o Everything seems to come back to 1939 - There is another dynamic, coming to terms with the past - When countries deny their history, it doesn‟t seem to just go away, it keeps coming back Vichy Crimes - With little, resistance, Vichy regime implemented Germany‟s racial laws. 75,000 Jews sent from France to Auschwitz - Night of 16 July 1949, 9,000 police officers rounded up 13,000 Jews-> 6,000 of these were sent to a deportation camp, Drancy, outside Paris France during the War - Two Frances: France of Vichy and occupied France - Vichy: until 1942, it was less than a sovereign state but more than a colony - Many people were convinced that June 22 was not a defeat but also a National Revolution, hat France would transform itself and find a place in the new German Europe Philippe Petain - Today, „Petainist,‟ is an insult of the gravest order - 1939-1940, he was the dominant figure in the French military and in French politics - 1939: became France‟s first ambassador to Franco (the Left complained that Franco deserved no such honour) - Convinced that politicians brought France into a war for which she was not prepared - Was a hero because of defending Verdun and ending army mutinies in 1917 - Petain entered into a government in May 1940 - He came out in favour of an armistice, France‟s days were numbered - June 17: “It is with a heavy heart that I tell you to fate that we must cease hostilities” 22 June 1940 France fell - 10 July: all but 80 deputies voted to dissolve 3 Republic and to hand powers to Marshall Petain; 12 July Pierre Laval became his VP Vichy‟s national revolution Vichy Was: - Anti- liberal and anti-parliamentary - Combining of legislative and executive powers - Anti-republican work, family country replacing liberty, equality, fraternity - Anti-feminist - Belief in an organic society, without class division - Corporatist and anti-unionist - Anti-Semitic and hostile to Communists and free masons - National revolution and collaboration were distinct - National revolution was a particular vision of France that could go hand in hand with Collaboration (Petain) with opposition to the collaboration (Paul Weygaud) or even with fanatical anti-German hatred (Charles Maurras). One could also be collaborationist (Laval) without supporting the National Revolution Vichy hopes - Petain and Laval hoped to carve out a place for France by making themselves indispensible to the Germans. Laval participated in the deportation of (mostly foreign Jews) from unoccupied France, and suggested including children. - Petain and Laval offered French support in the defence of German and French positions against the Allies. Policy failed: Vichy won paltry concessions: reduction in occupation costs, right to more arms, release of POWs - However, 2/3 of French Jews (French citizens) survived. Citizenship DID matter o Citizenship mattered because Vichy was very hesitant to give up their Jews, their French citizens, they were willing to deport foreign Jews instead After - After the war, defenders of a place in a German Europe and argued that they had been a shield for France. Arguments: o France did not suffer Poland‟s fate (Hitler never intended to it) o Vichy prevented deportations of workers (untrue: 646,000 forced labourers, third after SU and Poland) o Relatively few of France‟s Jews died (24%) Collaboration in the Occupied zone - Like resistance, collaboration is highly difficult to define - Even Jean Moulin, tortured to death by Klaus Barbie for his resistance activities worked as a prefect in the occupied zone, often cordially, with the Germans - Added to this is casual collaboration - Hoffman distinguishes between voluntary and involuntary collaboration - Most extreme collaborationists were found in Paris Paris Collaborationists - Far exceeded Vichy in their fanaticism - Paris collaborationists included public ideologues as well as politicians administrators in the police and civil service - Dominated by the right, though anti-Communism and pacifism attracted figures from the left Vichy and the Jews - Collaboration reached its peak with respect to the Jews - Eugene Deloncle organized early rains on synagogues that the Germans protested - 7,000 were sent to a stadium, the Velodrin d‟hiver, where they were left for 5 days w/o food or water, 100 killed themselves; the rest were deported to Auschwitz - Vichy policemen rounded up included 4,000 children whom the Nazis were willing to spare End of Vichy - 10 Nov, 1942; Germans invade all of France; Vichy truly a puppet regime - August 1944; France liberated, purges began Post War France
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