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European Visions and First Steps of Cooperation Part 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Prof Hilz

European Visions and First Steps of CooperationDriving Force of European Cooperation Federalists vs UnionistsFederalistsEstablish a Federal European State and overcome and integrate nation statesUnion of European Federalists UEF 1946European Parliamentary Union EPU 1947 These groups exist today but their voices are weakThis camp was largely wiped out following the first stage of European integration and federalists are almost nonexistent todayThey idealistically sought to avoid a return to the destructive nationalistic past of EuropeThe federalists were numerous in the Benelux countries and in Switzerland UnionistsCooperation of the free sovereign and democratic nations of EuropeNew intergovernmental Organizations in EuropeThey were realists who thought that only strong democratic governments could deal with the anarchy of the international orderSir Winston Churchill made a speech in Zurich Switzerland where he called for a United States of Europe to be set up and led by France and GermanyThis speech boosted both camps through its unclear wordingHe was a wellknown realist and was likely talking about continental Europe excluding Britain This is often confused as a union between sovereign states and a federalist union of all of continental EuropeThe confusion of terms culminated when both European movements met at the Congress of the Hague in 1948Meeting of Europeanists MovementsThere was one declaration adopted at the congress and it was diametrically opposed to thefederalist goalsIt called for steps to be taken towards greater cooperation between theEuropean statesUnder the leadership of Churchill and the British the Unionists spread their idea of greater cooperation between sovereign statesThe Union would be characterized by cooperation not integrationThe Social Democrat Parties rejected this movementWhen it came to national politics every party tried to work towards its own goals not for the good of Europe as a wholeThe union would not have independent responsibility merely facilitate governmental cooperationAs a result the Unionists took and kept the lead in this ideaological battleThe Council of EuropethFounded on May 5 1949 was an intergovernmental organizationIts approach was limited to intensified cooperation between governmentsThe federalists tried to work through this council to weaken national sovereignty but they were consistently blocked by the Unionists and BritishThe council includes the European Court of Human RightsThe Parliamentary Assembly is simply an advisor to the state this was just a traditional intergovernmental approachThere was no way around the veto of each member nor the anonymous ballot systemEvery
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