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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Nathalie Fournier

Week 3- Lecture 3 September-24-12 3:14 PM The Different-isms  Social sciences have multiple paradigms o Deals with: o How do we deal with threat o Is cooperation possible o What do actors want o What is more important for understanding international politics o Is there possibility for change Realism:  E.H Carr invented realism- facts Thomas Hobbes- 15866-1679  War was a big part of his life  Leviathan (1651)- simplified use for international relations o The state of Nature: ' a war of every man against every man" o Life is solitary, poor, nasty and short o Not sustainable situation - how do we escape the state of nature o Solution: State- oppose rules to restrain people The Logic of Hobbes: Argument 1  Man is selfish hedonist- the voluntary acts of every man, the object is some good to himself  All people are equal, rational and possessing a passionate love of survival (right of nature) - leads to violence  In the interest of personal survival, people will come around agreeing that they should renounce of violence The Logic of Hobbes: Argument 2  The creation of Leviathan enforces stability- citizens give up their inde3pence to buy stability  The Leviathan gets ultimate authority and a monopoly over the use of violence  Morality, justice, property- are social constructs imposed by the state and exist only so long as the state is strong enough to impose them- they are tools for maintaining stability rather then inherent right s  Law is dependent on power- nothing to do with morality- Legal positivism- justice is whatever the law says it is- an unjust law is an oxymoron  BULL: the Domestic Analogy - Hobbes story and to analyze it and relate to states  Only rightful state - Right of Nature- use of violence is allowed and its legitimate for survival  Hobbes= Realism  Not interested in what happens inside the state but rather outside the state Hobbes and International Relations  The international system is in a Bobbesian state of nature; individial=state- unitary actor  Anarchy- without a leader- the absence of higher governing authority beyond the state- no world government o Does not mean chaos and lack of order o Sovereignty equality = Anarchy  Survival: self help, self interest, constant potential for violence; life is solitary, poor nasty and short  Very limited potential for cooperation- unstable equilibrium- fear of defection  No Leviathan= no room for moral considerations- Survival and self interest are moral under anarchy The Security Dilemma:  T1: Constant fear and insecurity- Because any state may at anytime use force, all states must constantly be ready either to counter force with force or to pay the cost of weakness  T2: Actor A- seeks to increase her security by buying weapons/building a defensive wall/gaining allies  T2: Actor B fears Actor A's improved position enhanced sense of security  T3: Actor B; forced to invest in weapons/defensive means/ allies  Outcome: A and B are insecure in T3 as they were in T1- only poorer, Arms race  The dilemma: how can we increase our security without threatening others Example: Thucydies ( 5th Century BC)  Realists believe that international relations are constant o Human nature is constant o Structure of anarchy Peloponnesian War (431-405 BC)  Sparta and Athenian - 2 powerhouses  Athens built a wall  Sparta wins The Melian Dialogue  Athens vs. people of Melos  The standard of justice depends on the equality  The
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