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Lecture 4

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Nathalie Fournier

Week 4: Lecture 4 October-01-12 3:22 PM Liberalism Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)  Perpetration of peace  Never saw war  Kant rejects the separation between the moral imperative and the political realm (Machiavelli) o He connects morality and politics - separation  Following self interest will lead to a perpetual peace in the vast grave that swallows both the atrocities and their perpetrators  There is unavoidable historical progress towards word federation- but we have the obligation as rational human beings to spend the process o Some plan to bring peace now  To reach peace: 1. The civil constitution of every state should be republican- democratic ; theoretical - different behaviour between different governments 2. A world federation should be established 3. Economic and social interaction across borders should be encouraged  Modern reading of the Kantian peace: democracy, trade, international organizations Adam Smith- The Wealth of Nations, 1776 Economic and Peace  Laissez- faire- minimal government intervention in economic affairs  Humans are rational profit maximizers  Trade generate benefits  War will erode these benefits- ergo Trade creates an interest in peace- rejection of war   More trade leads to less war - Liberal peace The Wilsonian Moment, (Jan 8, 1918)  Justification of war - why are we at war Wilson`s Fourteen Points  Freedom of navigation of seas , removal of economic barriers and establishment of equality of trade conditions  Self determination: a strict observance of principle determining all questions of sovereignty the interests of the population  A general association of nations must be formed under covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence - Collective Security Neoliberalism Robert Keohane- father of neoliberalism  More scientific, theories they can test  Can we think of structural conditions that would include cooperation- without relying on assumptions regarding human nature, morality or natural rights o Institutions- can observe how institutions impact us  Which institution leaves to more cooperation  Also called- Industrial liberalism Absolute vs. Relative Gains Ex. Distributions  States are interested in relative gains  Neoliberalism- trade is zero sum gain- absolute gains Liberalism: Summary Actors are rational and follow self interest- similar to relativism   Private interest does not necessarily contradict collective interest  Actors would prefer to avoid conflict if it affects their prosperity and well being (absolute gains)  The collective will is rational and prudent; narrow interest on the other hand can distort these tendencies  Actors 'interests are shaped and constrained by institution  The right kind of institutions (democracy international organizations) can mitigate conflict by b
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