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Outline-lecture 2-3.docx

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Political Science
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Nathalie Fournier

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REALISM AND LIBERALISM Realism: - Hobbes (Leviathan): state of nature ("solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short") and the right of nature (the right to secure one‟s survival). The solution for the Hobbessian state of nature is the Leviathan (the state). - The Hobbesian state of nature and Bull‟s domestic analogy: the international level lacks a leviathan and therefore resembles the Hobbessian state of nature. - Anarchy- „without a leader‟; the absence of higher governing authority beyond the state; no world government; does NOT mean chaos and lack of order. - The implication of an anarchic structure - The security dilemma - Thucydides and the Melian dialogue (“the strong do what they have the power to do and the weak accept what they have to accept.”) - Machiavelli (the Prince) (“It is better to be feared than loved”) - Modern realism: Hans Morgenthau‟s emphasis on power politics - Power politics: what is power and can it be measured?  Power: Morgenthau: “man‟s control over the minds and actions of other man.” Or: A gets B to do something s/he would not otherwise do. - Different distributions of power: unipolarity, bipolarity, multipolarity - Neorealism: Waltz‟s Theory of International Politics- can we theorize about international politics without theorizing about human nature? Neorealists think that it possible if we focus on the systemic implications of anarchy. - Realism: summary  IR is an objective field of study where events are governed by universal laws  The state is the most important actor and it is a rational and unitary actor The international system is anarchic  States seek to maximize security/power; national interest  The distribution of power is imperative for understanding IR  States sometimes rely on force or the threat of force to achieve
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