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FEB25th POL208.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Lilach Gilady

TUTORIAL: - regional interaction, integration: economics, security governance - balance of power governing interactions, but EU? No balance of power, literature based on security communities literature > communication, but also to stop the destruction of Europe occurring again; but in 50 years go from destruction to open borders and shrinking armies stc., go from onepersonals lifespan from total war to states not even planning to fight each other -> how does this change take place? Security communities literature: dependable expectations for interactions, long shadow of the future -> mechanism of governing no longer anarchy but open order : but right next door is the Middle East; so can you have a theory that tells you all about the world? Situational? Theories are regionally applicable - when BOP and security communities meet, differentatiate between regions and how they interact with each other * ask him to forward papers* : islands as isolation? Vulnerable? - regionalism: some governed by BOP, others by anarchy - Westphalian states a European construct, Territoriality: structure of space -> different kinds of territoriality, but spread of Westphalian states through colonials, spread of civil war and failed states because arbitrary borders, constantly opposing a state on a political community is okay because that is how it will look, not going to look like Europe > states should fail because inevitable? Ontologically in the discipline of IR because no real states actually exist, don’t math criteria of states yet why do they call them states or the international legal idea because built around states, even if legally they don’t match the criteria of states, so why treat them like states? Jeff Herst -> decertify states? Allow the to fai? Why buy into European knowledge, categorization? Can have EU and can have Congo? BUT HOW ABOUT STRUCTURE : open to exploitation, to respect. Power, global politics and geopolitics exist, anarchy will not go away International Law - EU: islands of cooperation in IR, cooperation under anarchy > Canada undergoing major procurement project, now a lot of equipment is dated and government is spend $250 B in the next 20 years, big expense - how best to spend money? Effects n military and the economy? USE PROCUREMENT DOMESTICALLY to drive growth when possible, if not available then develop -> butter vs. guns, ISI but issues of inefficiency (but innovation, creating spillover effects that can be used domestically?) - no support that spending on military will lead to government - how much should it be driven by economic interests? Social interests? EU: neofunctionalism, how integration works EEC - 1957 Treaty of Rome; France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium and Luxemberg, UK wants ti join afterwards ECSC, EEC (common market in 12 years), Euratom 1965: all 3 communities joined togetehr into EC (Euro Community) : must join all 3 1973: UK gets into EC (UK, Ireland and Denmark) : in the early stages of this entity, everything had to be decided unanimously for important decisions, but things can get paralyzed and difficult to get decisions through Growth in these organizations 70s: oil crisis, stagflation (mix of inflation and recession), NTBs -> europessisism, dreams of common market doesn’t seem to work -more countries want to join EC (Greece, Spain, Portugal - not democacries for long) 1986: move to put pessimism aside, had been stuck in a rut for20 years, everyone agrees to the Single European Act that a dream of a market needs to be realized by removing barriers of trade and integration, increase unity and cooperation, cant rely on the unanimous vote to qualified majority > 1992, EC to the EU - a symbolic change for the euro pessimism, moving towards integration PATTERNS - work best with economic issues (not perfect, require coordination and integration) because everyone could see the benefit and no threat to sovereignty - but issues having to deal with defence and foreign policy, integration is bogged down - once start going deeper into integration, issues that touch on social, political issues will occur : passport control and immigration isses, harmonized security apparatuses, who pays for what when labour moves, social issues will not work unless social issues not harmonized : by the time of EU return to a more political agenda, cant limit to economic issues : fall of the SU, want to join: who should be viable candidates? How big should the organization be? Thinking of a constitution? How large should EU be? - diverse, especially with newly democratized countries who are not as established, diverse economic interests, culture, history, structures of society economic conditions > too big, too diverse will it function? 28 countries in EU : challengig proposition to agree on things and harmonize HOW FAR SHOULD IT GO? Turkey? Challenge for European identity, question of geography? Religion? Economy, identity/culture/racism? Deep identoty questions that need to be resolved; what does Uropean mean, where does it start and end? What does European identity mean? ENLARGEEMNT tradeoff: bigger the scope, less depth we have in the meaningfulness of cooperation, depth of union? At what point does scope start compromising depth? Will see a 2 tiered apprpach: small European group (6 original members) with own agreements, cant agree all the time amnd this affects legitimacy of organization as a whole, impliations about future of the organization : is a unique International organization, has unique international reions and supranational organizations, dimensions are supernatural (above sovereignty) 2 types of laws: regulation (rare) - atomatically implemented in all members, overrides domestic law, becomes domestic law and can cancel existing laws if it is contradictory directive: have a timeframe to implement it in domestic law EU Organs (supranational element of EU) : ECJ: adjucates on matters of European law (large EU treaties) and if a country does not act can force country to comply : EU law overrides domestic law, must change even if n Constitution Parliament: directly elected by citizens once every five years, parties can cross countries based on party affiliation, goes above state, electoral system with representation in every country - does not offer own legislation, but can amend legislations or veto it EU CHALLENGES OUR NOTIONS OF SOVEREIGNITY > countries eding important dimensions and creating something above that, violation of the Westphalian system - deepest level of integration we see in international relations, every treat y we sign involves giving up a certain part of sovereignty but EU so deep that we queston nation of sovereignty in West Europe - trend accelerated in 90s: EMU, joint security and foreign policies, European constitution closer and closer to sovereignty while in Europe countries give up currency: issues deep about identity of European countries Reaction; Other Side, Regionalism - Aland: Swedish or Finnish? Co-sovereigns of Finland, have veto power over Finnish foreign policy > makes them important! Have veto power, became important when majority rules and Aland had a huge responsibility to decide for Constitution > had things they did not like, directives from Brussels that are changing their lives (fishing, duck hunting, veto legality of chewing tobacco (snus), important part of tradition and culture > people did not feel the political structure was representing them, so movements to reacquire political identity > amorphous regionalism, still be in EU with a less integrated smaller regionalism - problem of what images to put on the notes: invented
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