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Political Science
Jean- Yves Haine

GLOBALIZAZTION AND INEQUALITIES - Global south/less developed countries/3 rd countries, have a diverse concept since 60s, since then most of the 3 rd worlds have improved greatly - About one billion people live in poverty without access to basic nutrition or healthcare, concentrated in Africa, failed in Africa but successful in Asia - The average income in south Asia on 2 billion is 2700/year - Every 6 second a child dies as a result of malnutrition - One in eight worldwide are chronically under nourished - Economic growth on foundation, society must meet basic human needs - Among basic needs, education is a crucial factor, literacy is one of the most important factors that can put a country towards economic growth, a person how can read and write can obtain information about farming, health care, birth control, etc. - Great viations exits in schooling b/t north and south,, primary school in 2008 was around 90% in most of the worlds religion, ,only 75% for Africa, for secondary education in the north it is around 90% but in the south it is less than 65% - Health care is another crucial component, according to UNICEF, 1/7 child world wide lack access to health care, and 1/5 have safe drinking water....but health care isn’t expensive less than 5 for a person in one year - The most deadliest diseases raises from 5 – 50%; polio, hiv, - Since the 90s, and despite the HIV AIDS epidemic, help in global south have improved, UNICEF, and other foundations - Global disparity to health care access is great, 75% of world population has access to 30% of the doctor and nurses - In 2008 1/7 person worldwide lack access to safe drinking water, over 1 billion have no access to water, more than 2 billion people have no access to sanitation - Human insecurity; use of firearms...for Africa this is a key factor, civil war can hinder economic progress - Extraordinary gap b/t north and south with obvious consequences, first migration, lots of people from the south to the north, Toronto will be 2050, 50% will visible minority, there are something like 200 million people living outside their place of birth, the annual gross rate of migration, around 3% each year, Europe which lacks population because their demography rates are falling, if you project the same birth rates in 2000 years, there will be no more Germans, the Italian have the weakest demography rate in Europe, Europe is a target migration and yet Europe’s seems to be content of becoming a kind of fortress, one of the common denominators among European countries when they watch over the medditerrian and see the civil wars in the middle east, and tend to focus on Migration. Italy probably needs migrates the most, but reluctant to accept them. - Other consequences of migration is refugees, they are another category, in 2009, roughly ten million people were international refugees, ,50 million were internally displaced persons (refugees in their own countries), trying to flee conflict, wars, and violence - With migration and refuges com trafficking, human trafficking is rising, it is estimate that 700 000 every year are trafficked across international borders against their will, - Rough picture gap b/t north and south, 80% of people live in the global south, but only 20% of the world’s wealth is possessed and created by these countries - How can we explain these gaps? o First; liberal/capitalist perspective: the south is just lagging behind the north, just a matter of time, matter of good economic policies that this countries will eventually catch up with the north, globalization will eventually bring these countries to level accustomed by the north, in the 1960s American historian White Roosten(?) identified a pattern of development, 5 stages where 1)traditional society economics, e.g. Europe in middle ages, local economy dominated by agriculture, 2) pre condition for take-off, transition stage, gains in agriculture productivity allows for manufacturing to emerge, the gain agricultural allows for education and scientific discoveries to emerge (e.g. steam engine), 3) take off; the industrial revolution, econothc growth becomes the norm, services and financial industries start to emerge, e.g. Great Britain in 18 century, infrastructures are built, and economic growth started to increase drastically 4) drive to maturity; more and more national income is invested and economy diversifies it, the economy opens up trades, growth, and so the fourth stages is roughly the 19 century expansion of capitalism, 5) the age of high mass consumption; where you have a diverse economy an open economy based on consumer goods and services, ...these theory of economic development that follows a pattern was highly contested in 60 70s, but there is general belief that economic development is linked to modernization ( a mix of social and economic changes, such as demographic transition, introduction to banking, mass education, and literacy, foreign investment, etc.)  If we look at the Asian tigers, the rapid rise of china and India and brazil roughly speaking we can we underline a rose development, especially the export /manufacturing, China became the manufacturing and banker of the world, and increasingly so...behind Rosto’s thesis there is also the current debate today on the actual impact of globalization for the global stuff, Martin Welf argues that countries with the highest rates of increased in international trade rose much faster than the rest, the key viable here seems to be the increase in international trade, countries that played the game of globalization and opened their market to economic competition, for Martin Welf all the success stories have some common features, move towards market economy, mostly private property rights, free enterprise, and competition, increasingly took over state’s ownership planning and protection, China where hundred and millions of ppl life from property in last 2 decades, globalization have overall helped the global south, and yet the picture may be a successful one for countries like China, India, etc., but its not a successful picture for many countries that are the “bottom billion” o 2 ; colonization/dependency ; focuses on the historical legacies of colonization, of imperial relationships between the north and the south, for most states in the global south the history of colonization by European powers have been a tragic one, it is central to their identity, ,central to their economic projectory, a huge important factor in explaining their foreign policy and openness, European powers colonized most of the world, in 1978 Europe’s leader met in Berlin where they divide Africa among themselves, the colonization process had huge economic impact on countries, Belgium in Congo led to huge massacre, resources and minerals were shipped away, farm land were planted with crubs for export not local use, infrastructure was made to serve the colonial powers not the local population, this distortion had a long lasting impact, colonization brought some benefits; health care, schools, cities, roads, train...the story of colonization is overall a bad one, but still some benefits were bought to these countries, the belief by the north that these countries were racially inferior which had a long lasting relationship impact b/t north and south. The decolonization process nearly completed by the 60s, which started under UN pressure, was embedded in UN resolution in 1614 that compels colonials powers to decolonize, obgliation for colonial powers to decolonize, colonies started gaining independence, but deconolization process usually violent and abrupt, Belgium gave independent ot congo in 1985, but inernaitonal pressure was so high, Congo was independent in 1960, but because it was so quick, Congo wasn’t ready. National agenda for these new free countries, tends to open up foreign competition because most of these countries relied on one or two export, on one or two natural resources ...reluctance for these countries to open meant that they based their economic development on protection rather than competition, behind the legacy of colonization and decolonization there are more subtle imperial relationship b/t north and south. Dependency theories underline the situation of structure inequality b/t some countries of the south and north, in equality relationships means that for these countries in the south you have a situation where the accumulations of the capital cannot sustain itself internally, and must borrow capital to produce goods, TNCs start developing in Congo and money goes to the foreign investors and not to the local, it depletes natural resources of that country, except for few local workers, and except for taxis there is no take off for that country, the resources are extracted, but the benefits to not reach the population, inequality has led to the new international economic order of the seventies, in the seventies he believes that because relationships b/t the north and south were structurally unequal, there would be no possibility for economic development in the south, the new international economic order developed some specific demands with specific agenda, new economic order was agreed by the UN in the general assembly, it was an important landmark, among the measure proposed by this new economic order, some were crucially important 1) nationalization of foreign companies exploiting natural resources, American companies extracting oil from these countries, should be nationalized, they should return to the state ownership, that way you avoid the escape of benefits, in 70s 80s most of these huge American companies extracting resources were nationalized in Iran, etc., 2) debt reduction/consolation, the level of debt for south was so high that the repayment of that debt killed any prospect for economic growth, started the process of restricting the debt of the south, debt reduction is a mechanism that is suppose to help economic growth in the south, and in the north agreed to it not because they are generous, but because the restoration of the south is in the interest of the north, a way of preserving their banking system, 3) technology transform; for the global south the entry into world markets was too high, in terms of investment, there was no way that countries to compete when they have to invest so massively just to catch up in terms of technology, technology transfer meant that some exception should be granted for countries in the south in terms of copyrights, allows them to copy technology without paying the full amount of property rights, 4) fair trade; still very important today, we are touching one of the key obstacle to d
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