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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Jean- Yves Haine

- Questions for final essay posted on blackboard, due @ beginning of last lecture (2 weeks) - Documents linked to these out of the two REGIONALISM IN WORLD AFFAIRS - Tension b/t globalization and nation, as we have seen before, globalization is defined as the historical process of deepening, transforming world politics, can generate cooperation but can create problems as well, transforms how state function, changes the notion of power, modifies the notion of territory, changes the concept of sovereignty, yet in many ways nation-states remain cornerstone of international system, globalization underlines the notion of nations by creating competing identities, globalization affects the states (Susan Strange) - Nationalism can be considered as an ideology, as politics, as feelings, they are many definitions of nationality because depends if the nation existed before the state, whether nationalism has in fact strengthened the state or weakened it, whether nationalism is civic or ethnic... - Benedict Anderson defined the nation as a imagined political community, imagined as both limited and sovereign, it is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow students yet in the minds of each citizen with this image of their citizenship the nation is imagined as limited because even the largest nations has finite boundaries beyond which lies other nations, the imagination is limited in the sense of belonging inside and limited in its sovereignty because other countries and states co-exist...imagined as sovereign because it is mostly born in the age of enlightenment/revolution where the objective was to destroy the divine hierarchy (Westphalia) - Nationalism express itself through collective will, willingness to live together and share and represent specific civic values, nationalism in its expression may also be violent, exclusive, and aggressive o Extreme ethno nationalism in Yugoslavia in early 90s, demonstrates how it could destroy the state itself, o Ethnic nationalism in Africa has triggered numerous civil wars (threat to state from below and above)... - This threat to the state from below, equally a threat from above, there is the relationship with nation and globalization comes in...globalization may perceive as a danger to specific national values, generating new forms of nationalism, reaction against globalization, reaction against the flow of immigration, reaction against a capitalist worldwide system , reaction against globalization because it uniforms culture and threatens the national culture reaction against globalization perceived as Anglo-American plot/domination exercise... o e.g. Netherlands’ identity crisis (what does it mean to be Dutch?) led to complete change in the openness of the Dutch society, they have basically closed the level of immigration, imposed specific exams for foreigners if they want to become Dutch citizens, and at the core of the identity crisis is essentially globalization and specific national values...clearly a reaction to globalization that led to a radical change in their posture - globalization vs. nations may indeed produce new forms of nationalism as a reaction to the flow of the globalized world, but globalization also produce cooperation b/t countries either to strengthen globalization itself or as a reaction to it...this is where regionalism comes in - different types of regionalism o most general level; process of societal integration within a region, that process is enhanced by social and economic interaction, regionalism produce interdependence and deepens perception of common interests it is a process whereby national identities become more and more similar, the awareness of belonging to a region increase, regional agreements cover different mixtures of economic, social, political, and security issues, regional institutions may be minimal or extremely sophisticated and developed to reach the point of supra-regional institutions which have the legitimacy and power to decide above the state but are very rare (e.g. EU) that process of regionalism, sometimes actions are taken by states as the driving factor of regional integration, top-down process whereby the elite of the states push for regional integration, but in some instances the regional process has been triggered by market dynamics, where there is a bottom up process where political elites will institutionalized what existed before, two different mechanisms; top down ,or bottom up...corporations might be limited to specific areas, could essentially be a very general endeavour, when we talked about increased cooperation limited to specific areas we talk about a functional cooperation because it is a very utilitarian way of building corporations, it does make sense corporate in issues of transport/telecommunication, in the case of transport it saves money if the length between tracks/train are the same b/t countries so you don’t have to change your trades as to allow traffic...makes sense to put capabilities together to exchange information and share early symptoms in a more efficient way (against natural attacks)......economic cooperation are extensive, increase trade among preferred partners, doesn’t mean imply harmonization of rules or foreign policy, economic cooperation may be a free-trade area (e.g. NAFTA) , can be a custom-union, or a common market/monetary union (EU), the mechanism linked to political cooperation is slightly different, it may entails mutual considerations, supports for collective implementation of a specific project, it can be driven by a sense of weaknesses, to maintain influence countries need to get together, it may be the embalmment of common values and interest, because countries realize that they do share a lot of national interests and common values it makes sense to try to speak with one voice because it avoids unnecessary complications, and you get a little more influence outside, but in foreign policy especially in matters related to security dilemma about cooperation is numerous, it is about your own autonomy vs. a sense of solidarity, no institutions in the world can artificially impose the cohesion of different national interests, (e.g. despite existence of European security system, Germany didn’t feel compelled to vote in the same manner as France or UK on UN security level, because their perception of national interests, and what need to be done in Libya did differ fundamentally from London and Paris, despite numerous institutions, and years of socialization inside the union itself, despite promises again and again to speak with one voice, and emblements of willingness of foreign mister, the logic of national interests basically won), everyone we are talking about foreign policy and security policy, institutions remain largely weak, it is the same process if you are looking at a military alliance (e.g. NATO was asked to become the command and control of the operation in Libya, and yet it is not happening the basic reason why is because there are fundamental disagreement among NATO members about what to do in Libya, Turkey opposes the action taken in Libya and refuse that NATO be involved in that operation, in 2003 France and Germany did oppose the US war in Iraq and did refuse that NATO be involved in that conflict...despite institution like NATO the expression of national interest remain far more superior than solidarity within that group) the dilemma for the most powerful of the group is about keeping your own autonomy (the chain-gain dilemma) don’t’ want to be drag by other members until a consensus is reached, the middle powers would be about entrapment (you don’t want to be dragged into a conflict that you don’t understand or fundamentally oppose, in a regional setting like that, autonomy vs. security is a dilemma in many ways weakens institutions) - Why do states push for regional integration? 1) The management of independence; specific configuration where the waves of independence in the 1960s, especially in Africa, triggered the emergence of new states, which felt compelled to regulate their relationships with their former master (former colonies) and relations amongst themselves, process was about consolidation the new nationhood and national identities of these nations, you’ve got cooperation and regional integration, e.g. British Commonwealth is a forum whereby relationships b/t former master and independent states are discussed in this setting, the French have enacted several regional agreement in Africa where they even have a zone where a common currency is used...the process was about helping these new nations to find their sovereignty into a regional cooperation with their former master, the second aspect was regulation among these new states, in Africa it saw the emergence of what is now called the Africa Union, despite ambitious objective, the institution is suffering from many difficulties, the key reasons why is beyond the institutions and regional cooperation, the sense of a African community is limited, any intrusion from an Africa state or from African Union itself into affairs of another state is NOT accepted, especially if you are talking about democratic governance, the case of the African union attempt to solve the crisis in ivory coast is a reminder of how fragile it is. Other cases where regional organization are based on the management of independence, most notably the sect of relationship created by Moscow at the end of the soviet empire, to set up organizational setting to safeguard some influence of Moscow in these countries...these configurations are about independence 2) Management of interdependence; regions where economic and social interactions either state led or market driven demands a min. of regulations, regulations could be a custom agreement of a monetary union. These economic integrations can spill over in other issues, the mechanism of spilling over is one of the key aspect of functional integration, in a group of countries, to agree on a specific cooperation, on a specific issue will in fact trigger a process where the successful integration will tend to expand in other areas, the story of the EU is basically based on this spill over logic, after all the EU members were 6 when they signed their own treaty which was about creating single market but because it was successful in that specific area it spilled over in other issues, from justice to defence, the spill over mechanisms is a crucial aspect of the deepening of regional integration, it is also based on a slow process of building a security community, where indeed among members of the regional group there is an overall general expectation that conflict of interests will always be solved by negotiation, strong belief that among these members of the groups there will be a peaceful process of change, where the use of force will disappear, these management of interdependence may be looked at different ways, there is a functional aspect to it, not the only one, constructivists will look at these regional cooperation as a way of setting new norms of behaviour among these members, it is a place for socialization among elites, it is a place of learning among members of that regional organization, for these two reasons (socialization and learning), institutions do model, it is about creating a new reality, promoting new norms, in that constructive logic, regional integration is crucially important because at the end of the day, eventually the process will lead to a new identity among members of that region, the process always lead to competiting identities, in the case of the process whereby institutions will be the setting for new norms, eventually a new identity, a new “we” feeling will emerge, the realists, as always slight disagree with that logic, they look at institutions as temporary and convenient, but the logic of national interests will always prevail, they’re perception of national interests will remain the key criteria for specific behaviour, specific behaviour will not be dictated by regional integration process, it will be th
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