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Political Science
Jean- Yves Haine

- Machiavelli; always think about warfare regardless of peaceful or adverse times, uses example of Greek god o going back to the dedicatory letter; high times and bad times - two modes of exercise o deeds, “nature of sights…etc.” o mind - every competent leader knows “mountains and valleys”, studies them as a soldier, with an eye to war - in times of peace think of nothing but warfare, always focuses on warfare and all the chances that could happen - Phillipimen; - Presents himself as trying to assault Lorenzo using the topography metaphor based on dedicatory letter - Turns to books, resumes theme of imitation of pass greatness raises the questions of books - great founders are interchangeable, Cyrus substitute with Moses, Moses (old testament) and Jesus (new testament) - chapter 15; human beings as such, o praised: virtue o blame: vices o why doesn’t Machiavelli just say so? “remains now modes princes should be…etc”, subject of war to friends, expresses the nuance of his argument, of progress not return, “orders of others” new orders and examples of old ones, o “but since my intent is to write something useful….etc. effectual truth to imagination”  considered with the truth, unlike other philosophers he is concerned with the effectual truth not the imagination;  effectual truth: what people are, will it have an effect, to bring about some sort of result; power , if the criteria for the only truth that matters is rather or not it is effectual, the criteria of truth is power, and the power of that truth to change something, a truth that gets result, getting results becomes the criteria…you know its truth if it can have an effect and be used  scientific method; modern science which the criteria for theory is strictly practice, truth for the sake of its effects for power and practice,  PLATO: “ideas”= outside space and time in material, permanent, eternal, can’t do anything to or with them except achieve theoretical understanding  “Authors of imagined principality”; classical thinkers e.g. Plato, kingdom of heaven is a imaginary principality, Christianity, the church not a political regime but a worldly regimes  Imagined principalities go with imagined truth, not practical,  Suggests that considering imaginary principlaities useless but also dangerous, “learns his ruin rather than his preservation”, only the effectual truth teaches one preservation, ultimate reason for clinging to it and letting go of imaginary truths….best to be good, once should be good as much as possible and whenever possible, but got to temper goodness by necessary, what necessary must trump what is good, in doing what is necessary instead of good one is going from high to low, most common interpretation of Machiavelli, that he distinct good and necessity, and what should be done and how things are done  10 or 11 pairs of virtues and vices , numbers are significant to Machiavelli, with references to 10 commandments, and 11 for Aristotle vices…Machiavelli reminding us of the two traditions he is superceeding, presents them merely as choices and qualities,  “one should not care about incurring the vices…..etc….vice pursue results in well-being and security”; tension between good and necessary, and virtue and vice: making a radical argument that there is no such tension, whatever success requires
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