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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Jean- Yves Haine

INTERNATIONAL ACTORS - UN can be considered as a forum for great power politics...where great powers try to promote their national interests, the conflict in IRAQ the main forum of discussion as UN, mechanism for inter-state cooperation, every year we have an annual assembly, international treaties are negotiated...human security agenda led to international treaty on landmines prohibition, UN is a governor for something like an international society of states, where diplomats try to build personal relationship, it is also a constructor of different social worlds (attempt at Copahagen to ratify climate change policies...failure but UN climate conference), forum where other states try to legitimate their actions in front of the world, every year @ annual assembly we have Iranian leaders to defend its regime, lastly, the UN as a secreteria and its agents is working for a collective public good (e.g. world food program, office of humanitarian affairs, peace keeping operations division, these agencies are trying to work for a better world, in preamble of UN charter), is UN in crisis? The crisis in Iraq showed division between great powers which put the US th system at risk, the UN summit in Copenhagen failed to deliver its premise, display of inefficiency, 60 anniversary of UN an important report was commission to try to make the UN system better, there was suggestions of how to reform UN council, these attempts have failed, enlargement of permanenent members have failed, the changing world after 911 the eruption of transnational actors in particular terrorist groups meant that classic interstate relationship most of the time was not enough to tackle these new threats, the UN can atleast define what the threat of terrorism is about, to define the challenges faced by community of states and even that minimum agenda about a universal definition about threatof terrorism failed, we don’t have a universal consensus about definition of terrorism, however UN was much more successful in defining what states should do in order to tackle the thtreat of international terror, successful in risk of nuclear profliferation linked to terror activities, needed to reform peacekeeping operations which was also successful, since that reports lot of progress had been made on the UN level, most notably about writing better mandates fro peacekeeping operations to improve regional capabilities for peacekeeping operations, however it is not clear if the UN will be more able to tackle issues of genocide or mass-murder, the failure in Bosnia and Rwanda have been dramatic, but it is not clear that the UN is now better fitted to address these kind of issues, lastly a significant progress has been made on the acceptance of a norm that we can called “responsibility to protect” but it was significant success to make the very concept universal despite former division between south and north, the UN has made some progress in making the system more efficient, especially in the realm of peacekeeping operations, human rights, and little less so international security - Lessons of the financial system and questioning of UN system, recognition that opportunity in 2008-09 has been missed, the crisis leaders have missed a moment to reform financial institutions and the UN global governance system, the process by which new institutions are created have 4 different phases; 1) crisis of legitimaticy of the old order, for Britain took place during great depression in early 1930s; 2) inter-regnum phase, new solutions are brought on the table, new experimentation are tried, in the 30s it was the new deal of Roosevelt, novelty at that time, these phase of new experrimentaiton may last several years or decades, what you need is rd a 3 phase (constitiutive phase, where small groups of nations try to coordinate their experimentation and try to come up with a plan which is more global than national, where issues of collaboration and cooperation kicks in, idea of new institutions emerge), 4) implementation phase, where new institutions are put into practice......the system was implement was successful because US was most successful nation, it takes times for old ideas and practice to loose their predominance and takes time for new practices to emerge, another version of what we have seen regarding life cycles of norms, we have seen that with life cycle of norms it takes times for new ideas to become norms, similar process exists with the creation of new institutions, this tells us that the financial 2008 and missed Berhood moment (?) triggered legitimacy of international economic system in particular the neo-liberal ageda of the 80-90s was seen as the main responsible factor for the crisis, the blame was on put on the system, financial crisis is a reminder of fragility of neo-liberal agenda, IMF and degregulation agenda of IMF have been promoted in the last 2 decades was seen as the main reason why there was such a crisis, this financial crisis affected leading economic actors and nations (notably US and UK) the crisis underline the shifting powers from atlantic to the pacific, what you have in the 2008 meltdown is a crisis of legitimacy of the old system (neo liberal consensus) and you have a crisis of leadership which led to 2 key innovations; 1) G7-G20, 2) consensus to create a new regulatory project, e.g. financial stability board, however the current period is not a constitiuve, led to new experimentation at the national level because of legitimacy crisis, corporation on international elvel have been minial, solution to the crisis have been national rather than international, now yet a new phase where new constitutive phase, crisis of UN system either in realm of security or in the realm of economic global governance has not yet led to a new institution framework, in many ways we are still living with old instititutions, it takes time to come up wit ha new institituitonal framework IMPACT OF TRANSNATIONAL ACTORS ON WORLD POLITICS - We have seen how realists underlined the state-centric system of IR, they tend to neglect the role of the transnational actors in world politics, the emergence of transnational actors have been recognized in the IR literature since early 1960s, it was first focused on economic transnational actors and their bargaining power in relation to countries from the south, (e.g. Issijet (?) is an airline company that is cheap, countries have to negotiate with that kind of company to allow them to operate on their terrority, Easyjet was negotiating with different government to use their airports, state was in negotiation because they were attracted with the investment (employment etc.), the state needs to also take into account of other interests of other companies that may be public, when easyjet tried to negotiate with French state they would welcome them on their terrority but it means competition with AirFrance which is largely a public company, a trade of between Easyjet in you terriroty that can bring more employemtn and impact on AirFrance traffic, trying to balance two economic imperative; another example would be Gasprom is a Russian olil company that represent a sgifnicant part of Russian gdp, its produce from Russia but also form other countries like Kazakstan, delivers gas to huge number of countries around the world and European countries (e.g. Ukraine highly dependent), Moscow tend to use gas as political tool, it uses the power of Gasprom to gain political advantage towards its relationship Ukraine, blackmail and hard negotiation between them, Gasprom is also a private company it has to compete in international market to attract investments it is subject to the market not only for investment but also for the price of oil, you see the competing logic of Gasprom as a political tool for Russian government, and Gasprom as an economic actor which has to answer to the international market, it may be the ierest of the Russian state to keep the price of oilrelatively low in Russia and relatively high in exports, but interest of Gasprom is to keep the price high in Russia, state trying to combine competiting interests, Gasprom has a lot of influence, but ultimately have to respond to international economic market), transnational actors put states in an awkward position because states have to balance competing interests - Need to recognize states are different, not as simple as realist’s 3 S, they are different in their regime, capabilities, history, governmental capacity, they project a specific identity into the world, they maybe more open or less open, this diversity means the international corporation are much bigger than the number of states, they have a higher revenue than the GDP of 130 members of the UN, some NGOS have bigger membership than the population of many states, trade union, churches, have millions of members and so as such they represent a force in international affairs - We need to recognize that state-centric view of realists is missing a huge part of what constitutes the IS, ignore vast reality of IR - Impact of transnational actors in security, the first transnational actors kind of group are terrorists groups, the point of transnational terrorists groups is that for the first time after 911 there is recognition that these groups could use violence on a level that was before the monopoly of state, they may use the WMD that before belonged only to states, these groups usually rely on external support for their activities, they rely on support or help from another state, with 911 we have seen the emergence of a group that could operate without the support of a state, the legitimacy of these terrorist groups is dependent on domestic support, e.g. Spanish terrorist groupthat tried to promote autonomy of Basque region in Spain, their activities were dependent on the support of the local population, not only financially, but in terms of help, support, and support of illegitimate activities, they used violence to such a degree that they lost domestic support, the local constituency of the Basque started to oppose their activities, which made them much weaker for that very reason, but with 911 this local constitutency have been nearly global, Al Queda acted in the name of supposedly a global Islam, the 911 moment made awareness of the transnational organization, it was organized by Saudi/Egyptian citizen from a cell to strike airports in USA, it was dependne ton global networks, global modernity, targets not what a state does, but their identity, after 10 years AL Queda as an magnet of discontent for Muslim world, that did not last, the attraction of Al queda decreased after 2005-06 because of their behaviour in Iraq and nd Afghanistan, they used such violence that their local constituency turned against them, 2 these cells and different groups seems to be very loosely organized, today al queda will likely endorse an attack after it happened, rather than being at its source, in other words it has become a brand name in the name of which some domestic cells may launch an attack, the good side of loosely organized structures is that a lot of amateurs are acting, and they aren’t good they make a lot of mistakes which allows security system to catch them, 1) security service has largely improved, 2) the perpretrator are not professional, because al queda has ceased to be vertical structure...emergence of 911 has shifted the security agenda in a dramatic way, it raises the problem of a failed/failing state, what is happening to another state may become a concern for national security, what is happening in morocco is important for the eu, state building became a new foreign policy objective, which explains why Europeans were ready to trade dictatorship in north Africa in order to get security, they accepted the fact in tonisia, they neglected issues of human rights precisely because these countries were able to deliver in terms of security, what matters it the abiity of a state to control and tackle extremist problems in their country, and human rights issues were the casual
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