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Lecture

PL208 sept 18 Theory of Realism

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL208Y1
Professor
Lilach Gilady
Semester
Fall

Description
September 17, 2012 Key Words notes Battle of Antietam  Battle of Antietam: Deadliest and bloodiest war. 50 century. American civil war. The war ended with no one victorious. A few days later we have the empaication by Abraham Lincoln. Towards the end of the war a photographer came and took a picture. This was perhaps the first time someone photographed a war. The important thing was that this was the first time copies of photos were passed around and the horror of war spread. The impact of these images from the battle of Antietam was great.  The deadlier wars are the ones that occur within the state itself.  Social science has tried to build models of realities in order to simplify the essence of reality of what might have happened. We In search of analytical have to simply recreate reality in order to understand what is knowledge. happening and why.  Models, by definition have to omit a lot of stuff. If we don’t we Models, by definition are bringing back the came complexity of reality. have to omit a lot of  The need for analytical tools : Sylvia and Bruno. stuff. If we don’t we  In each of the analytical knowledge. Reciprocal are bringing back the - Every model by definition omits certain dimensions of same complexity of reality reality. - Every model therefore includes implicit fundamental assumptions on what matters most. - There is always more than one reality. There is more than one way to cut the ‘cake’. Always more than one truth.  As critical readers we have to try to deduce what is important and what isn’t important. Just keep in mind that other models are just as important.  What kind of data do we bring about the table? There can’t just be one argument that will win everything. The issue is too complex. Correlation vs.  Example: a geographical map of Ontario. It obviously isn’t a precise model because we can’t possibly fit all of Ontario on a Causation tiny map. We can use this map to determine which sort of rocks can be found where. Theory: 1.  Choice of model also depends on question. Example: do not Descriptions. 2. Explanation. 3. look at a geographical model to determine the amount of rain. Predictions.  Correlation vs. Causation:  Theory: theory has three dimensions. A description, an explanation and a prediction (which is quite hard to detain. Quite problematic)  The important thing is that we need a theory to be able to be falsified. (Falsification) or else it is just a belief-like a religious belief. 30 year war was  A theory itself is a model. concluded with the  What sort of theories are we interested in? The ones that study peace of Westphalia the relations between nations. We might also study the relations such as civil wars.  30 years war -1618-1648 - The two big powers: 1. The pope- he has a political affliction that provides the rope for him. The emperor is the delegate of the pope and is the one that exercises the power over the people for the pope. People will think that the emperor should be listened to and respected not just because of the power he has but also because he is connected with spiritual power through the catholic pope. We also have other players such as the French king, the Sweden king. In order to complicate things even more. We have the reclamation. The protestant movement. The holy roman emperor isn’t quite happy. And he wants everyone to stay Ferdinand II catholic. This is the power that he possesses. 2. The French king/ - By this time the old emperor dies. And they need to decide The defenestration of who will be the new emperor. They deicide to elect Prague pushed the Ferdinand the second. He was a pretty strict catholic. 30-year war. - This becomes a problem in Prague. The Defenestration of Prague 1618: Ferdinand sends some of his people to the embassy in Prague and they are thrown out the window. This is the beginning of the war. Ferdinand wants to avenge his people and thus begins the 30 year war. A deadly war. - Most of population that was lost during the 30-year war was near palatinate, Wurzburg, Meckll Burg, Pomerania. - The reason why we have such a loss of population is because at that time they didn’t have much medical supplies, food and such. The army would just ransack the villages they would go through. - By the end of the 30-year war they are out of resources. Augsburg: he who - The war ends with the Peace of Westphalia. And the world rules gets to decide starts to resemble the political blocks that we see today. The which religion peace relies on the principal that was already accepted. everyone should Augsburg 1555. Basically it was decided that he who rules practice. gets to decide what religion they choose. - The problem then emerges is that it takes away the power The peace of from the holy roman emperor and the Pope. Westphalia was - The treaty itself is an important document. This is the pace important because where we see the clear statement of sovereignty. From now from it we see the on we do not have overlapping territory. Every territory has clear statement of only one ruler and that ruler has the power to reject the sovereignty. pope and holy roman emperor. Moreover, From now  The peace of Westphalia sees the birth of the modern on we do not have international relations system. overlapping territory.  The emperor relinquishes any right to intervene with the local Every territory has ruler-more specifically the king. This was unheard of before the only one ruler and war. that ruler has the  Sovereignty: what does it mean in practice: we are still power to reject the - By definition it meas. A people, a territory, a bureaucracy, the pope and holy roman king as a legal entity emperor - Monopoly over the functions of the state in a defined territory, excluding all external; internal (monopoly over the legitimate use of force) the state has the right to use force, it has the decision to declare war and it becomes illegitimate unless the state is doing so. - The rig
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