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FALL/WINTER Lectures on POL208

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Lilach Gilady

Lecture 3 - A World of Nation States The World System – there is a system that we are all a part of that governs the world. This has been true throughout human existence. One element brings about changes in another element and then changes the whole system. We live in a system of interconnected states connected by trade, economy, and this will affect the behaviour of individual states as a whole. The Thirty Years War 1618-1648 The Westphalian State system draws itself from the conclusion of the Thirty Year‟s War. This war was fought mainly in Germany, brought about by Martin Luther and his followers and the Catholic Church. This conflict was a culmination of the 30 year‟s war, which was finally brought to a stalemate. From this emerged the Peace of Westphalia, which stated that each Sovereign was ruler of their particular territory.  The state is the ultimate authority in their territory independent of other states.  The Modern State System: 1. They are Sovereign of other states 2. Diplomatically recognized by other states. Diplomats arise out of this – one needs now to go through the channels of diplomacy between diplomats. 3. Modern states possess a monopoly in the use of force, coercion, and violence both within and outside the territory. 4. Borders were imposed on territories 5. … The World System spread around the rest of the world largely through colonialism. For example for Latin Americas, South Asia and Africa‟s were colonized lathely for their economic, labour, etc advantages. As these countries gained their independence in the 20 century, the boundaries that the states had previously from their colonizers from the Westphalian Peace boundaries, stayed the same, thus the world acts upon this state system. Most of the countries that came under colonization broke out into civil warfare, such as the revolutions in Rwanda, in Angola, etc. Colonial powers usually interfere in other states for economic advantages and for power balance. Sovereignty and the UN  Non intervention “Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations o intervene in matter which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matter to settlement under the present Charter.” (Article 2/7)  Equality “The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members.” (Article 2)  Is the Westphalian system a myth? To a certain extent with all the violations of the system it is a myth.  Does the Westphalian state system make a difference? A good way of dealing with that is to imagine how a world state would deal with a crisis. A demonstration of this is the possibility of global warming from human induced climate change. This is a global crisis, and we need global action to reduce GHG emissions substantially. This would be easier if we lived in a world system that would be able to pass law and all states must listen to the world power. However because of the Westphalian system each country makes their own decision, causing any substantial action to be taken against global warming very unlikely. Contested Sovereignty  Where sovereignty (either internal or external) is contested one can expect troubles  Contestation from the inside: failed states and civil wars  Congo, Former Yugoslavia, Somalia Lecture 4 - The Liberal Solution  Domestic analogy: institutions solve the problem of anarchy  The quality of institutions affect the stability of the solution  Domestic structures matter; institutions matter  Rights exist independent of power  Progress is possible 1. Liberals are different from their realist counterparts. They believe that humans are inherently good, but that this good human nature can be corrupted by certain circumstances. 2. Liberals argue that the state is not the only important agent in the International System; increasingly multinational corporations are important actors on the international stage. International organizations like the League of Nations, the International Monetary Fund are important actors because they create an environment in which there is an increased corporation between states and countries. 3. John Locke is considered the founder of Liberalism. “It is rational for individuals to subject themselves of a state, sovereign as long as the sovereign upholds a basic social contract.” – This is Locke‟s idea in his book, “The Second Treatise of Government.” 4. Ideologically the main supporter of the great Revolution, and a great catalyst for the American Revolution. He argued for the right of revolution when a government no longer suited the means of the population. Immanuel Kant‟s Perpetual Peace (1795)  Kant rejects the separation between the moral imperative and the political realm (Machiavelli)  Following self-interest will lead to a “perpetual in the vast grave that swallows both the atrocities and their perpetrators.”  There is unavoidable historical progress towards world federation-but we have the obligation as rational human beings to speed the process  To reach peace: “The civil constitution of every state should be republican”  A world federation should be established  Economic and social interaction across borders should be encouraged  Modern reading of the „Kantian Peace‟: democracy, trade, international organizations Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, 1776  The central question that he asks in this text is -- what determines the wealth of nations? What makes some countries so very rich and others poor?  The Wealth of Nations is determined by how much a particular country could produce and therefore how it much it could consume. The standard of living of its citizens also shows how wealthy a country is.  The extent of the division of labour determines which country is rich and which is poor. The greater the division of labour, the richer the country. Specialisation created efficiencies, which therefore created more production within a country.  How do societies achieve this greater level of wealth? For this we require a market. These markets in order to be conducive to the needs of society, they need to be free of the constraints of politics (no government intervention).  We measure the wealth of nations today in the international society with GDP or GNP, which is, Gross Domestic Product and Gross National Product, respectively.  The best way to enhance the wealth of states is through free trade – thus their overall wealth increases, trade will lead to benefits, and the less war at the end of the at that we are likely to have. This is basically the idea of commerce super ceding war. Wilson‟s Fourteen Points  “Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas”; “The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions.”  Nations have a natural right to self-determination: “a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government…. Karl Marx  Historical materialism – by virtue of the fact that he argued that all human progress depend on a material base that is able to sustain them. That material base is the economy, and everything outside it is the human superstructure.  The history of society is the succession of different modes of production. This in agreement with Kant, is progressive.  Bourgeoisie versus Proletariat.  Feudalism he argued was more progressive in many ways from the slave based societies, and therefore was able to get rid of the slaves. However it was still based on class differences, i.e. the dominant class (lords, kings, nobles) and the peasants.  Capitalism – the locomotive of…it rationalizes societies and bring them towards progress. Capitalism is based on the ownership of capital; also based on the class that exploits and the class that produces.  In capitalism the ruling class is not free; they have very few choices as to what to do with their surplus. If they want to remain capitalist, they must always produce everywhere to stay within the competition.  Over production cause problems – people then lose jobs because demand is less and the great amount of labour is not required. This creates economic crises of demand, and as less people can soak up the product, thus the prices of the product will be reduced. How is this important to I.R.?  Lenin and Hobson: Imperialism explains the lack of revolutions (Marx assumes a closed market)  Imperialism leads to war: class is the problem rather than anarchy or the nation state   The main unit of analysis is therefore class; The state is controlled by capital and serves its interests  What kind of IR do Marxists predict? Conflict over markets, imperialism,…dependency theory.  Dependency Theory – sees the development of the first world and the underdevelopment of the third world Neo-Marxism World System  Immanuel Wallerstein  Holistic view: analysis based on systemic production processes and class relations  Long term processes – historical perspective  Core vs. periphery” a powerful and wealthy core dominates and exploits a weak and poor periphery; this hierarchy is quite stable. Constructivism  A different critique; focuses on the very notion of rationality. Rationality is always bounded by certain assumptions and certain institutions in society that make some things seem rational and others irrational.  Institutions i.e. family, marriage, lecture, border, sovereignty; war, etc.  Political culture is important in framing the rationality of society. Culture answers our questions about who were are, and what is our motivation.  The importance of ideas, and identity are most important in understanding international politics. Crisis  The Cuban Missile Crisis takes over Cuba o November 1860 JFK Elected o January 1961 Bay of Pigs o June 1962 USSR decides to introduce nuclear missiles to Cuba  International Dimension – the Cold war involved an international competition, in which every single I.R. state was crucial to maintaining order.  No country no matter how trivial or no matter how small could fall into the hands of the Soviet Union, because it would provide an advantage for the Soviets. Bay of Pigs Invasion – the U.S. invasion of Cuba, which the Cubans demolished effectively.  The Strategic Dimension of the Cold War – the nuclear confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United states, emerging after the U.S. first tested their weapon ion 1949. o The Americans had missiles in Turkey stationed towards Cuba. o The Soviet Union sought to support the Cuban Revolution to station nuclear missiles far closer to American territories in the Island of Cuba. o Spy planes noticed the building of missiles, resulting in the Cuban Missile crisis. o JFK gathered a panel of advisors, a deliberation that lasted 13 days – the final decision being resulting in the decision of the blockade.  Possible American Responses – o Ignore the Missiles, Diplomacy, Invasion o Surgical Bombing  Would worsen the situation o Blockade.  The United States acted rationally as to what was to be done about the Cuban Missile Crisis and therefore acted accordingly to the rational model.  Rational; Organizational, Bureaucratic (cognitive) – Allison‟s three Models. o Rational Model: Unitary actor  Sates will act rationally, collect information, do cross/benefit analysis and opt for the decision that best suits their situation. o The Organizational Model:  The state is a collection of organizations – breaks the unitary actor  Organization follows procedures  They will use the most appropriate, easily available, most salient pre-set procedure/scenario to deal with the crisis o The Bureaucratic Model  Rejects the Unitary actor bureaucracies in governments are constantly in competition with each other over resources and power.  The outcome reflects the balance of power within the government  Where you sir is where you stand  Rational Actors – Maximizing political gain  Like levels of analysis – these models provide us with competing explanations for political outcomes – competing description of the process of decision making.  Crisis in the I.R. usually have more than one bureaucratic actor with many interests.  How do Crises affect Human Decisions? o Cognitive Models  Past experience, personality, skill, etc. Individuals are not strictly speaking rational; we all to a certain extent have selective memory. It is easier for us to remember some things than others. Causal Inferences – we tend to see things are causally linked, whether they are or not.  The effects of stress  reduction in cognitive complexity, increased cognitive rigidity, reduced time horizon (curvilinear relation; selection process). Crises increase stress, and in many cases they tend to inhibit rational decision making.  Group pathologies: group think – in situation of crises in particular, leaders have a tendency to surround themselves with people whom they trust. That is those who do not lean on the leader only; group think as such can become very problematic in reaching rational decisions.  The Crisis of 1914 o Misperception of other countries interests, intention and likely responses that culminated in this crisis. o Insensitivity to warnings o Suppression. Distortion and rejection of contradicting information o Failures to recognize miscalculations as the crisis escalated (no re-evaluation or assumptions).  Prospect Theory: o Our decision making ability is influenced by how the decision is framed and presented to us. Many decisions are in a way forms of gambling – domain is the realm of gains or losses. We are willing to gamble.  1962 – War Averted o The decision making environment encouraged debate o Explicit sensitivity to the likely perceptions and calculations of the adversaries o Adopted policies that bought more time, such as the blockade o Created more room for gradual escalation o Exercised decent and tight control over actual naval deployment o Created and operated multiple channels of communication…  Crises Behaviour – Final Points o Nationalism, modern economics. Weaponry. Tec
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