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Pol 208 lec 3.docx

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Political Science
Lilach Gilady

Pol 208 Lec# 3 Necessary and sufficient conditions: Attending and participating in tutorials increases the chances of succeeding in pol208 Attendance A  success B Attending tutorials  higher grade Sufficient condition: tutorial attendance is a sufficient condition for success in pol208 Falsification: should never observe A without B However: students may succeed through other means Other components are needed in exam, paper, quizzes Observing B in the absence of A does not falsify the hypothesis. Necessary condition: students must participate in tutorials in order to succeed in POL208 Student can be active in tutorials but still not do well in the course (other variables: reading, lectures, exams…) However they must participate in tutorials to do well We should never observe B without A However observing A without B does not falsify the hypothesis. Conditions can be: neither, either or both 9 a necessary and sufficient condition -Democracies do not fight with each other joint demo  peace is it necessary? Sufficient both? Neither? Necessary: only joint demo  peace Sufficient: To be peaceful, enough to know that they are demo UN general assembly Somalia: failed state  unclear government The 30 years war 1618-1648 Political structure of Europe of the time= complex Holy empire  leader the pope Pope (spiritual leadership) Emperor claims to have divine authority, from god, pope Defenestration of Prague (1618) 30 years war: kills a third of Europe’s pop  such a high rate of casualties because of hunger! Peace of Westphalia: peace agreement  1648 Cuius region, eius religion (Augsburg 1555) He who is king, has the ability to chose the religion He who reins, chooses the religion -principle that governed European relations authority of the state, has authority over certain territory and no one is allowed to intervene. Sovereignty : what doe it mean in practice? A people a territory a bureaucracy the king as a legal entity -Monopoly over the functions of the state in a defined territory, excluding all external intervention (monopoly over the legitimate use of force- Weber) -the right to conduct foreign relations and sign treaties -sovereign equality Sovereignty and the UN Internal sovereignty: policies in order to government , control over the population. External sovereignty: recognition from the international system, whether can be a member of an international organization UN: constitution of the org, It does not cancel the principle of sovereignty, but emphasizes it. Institutionalizes the Westphalia system -non-intervention -equality Contested sovereignty -concept of sovereignty starts in Europe then spread around the world. Some areas where sovereignty not completely settled -where sovereignty (either internal or external) is contested one can expect troubles ex: Quebec, Somalia, large part of Syria, Yugoslavia, Congo -Contestation from the inside: failed states, and civil wars -Contestation from the outside: no recognition -Taiwan: though has a government, sovereignty not recognized by the
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