Pol 208 Lec# 3
Necessary and sufficient conditions:
Attending and participating in tutorials increases the chances of succeeding in
pol208 Attendance A success B
Attending tutorials higher grade
Sufficient condition: tutorial attendance is a sufficient condition for success in
Falsification: should never observe A without B
However: students may succeed through other means
Other components are needed in exam, paper, quizzes
Observing B in the absence of A does not falsify the hypothesis.
Necessary condition: students must participate in tutorials in order to succeed in
Student can be active in tutorials but still not do well in the course (other variables:
reading, lectures, exams…)
However they must participate in tutorials to do well
We should never observe B without A
However observing A without B does not falsify the hypothesis.
Conditions can be: neither, either or both 9 a necessary and sufficient condition
-Democracies do not fight with each other
joint demo peace
is it necessary? Sufficient both? Neither?
Necessary: only joint demo peace
Sufficient: To be peaceful, enough to know that they are demo
UN general assembly
Somalia: failed state unclear government
The 30 years war 1618-1648
Political structure of Europe of the time= complex
Holy empire leader the pope
Pope (spiritual leadership)
Emperor claims to have divine authority, from god, pope
Defenestration of Prague (1618)
30 years war: kills a third of Europe’s pop
such a high rate of casualties because of hunger! Peace of Westphalia: peace agreement
Cuius region, eius religion (Augsburg 1555)
He who is king, has the ability to chose the religion
He who reins, chooses the religion
-principle that governed European relations
authority of the state, has authority over certain territory and no one is allowed to
Sovereignty : what doe it mean in practice?
the king as a legal entity
-Monopoly over the functions of the state in a defined territory, excluding all
external intervention (monopoly over the legitimate use of force- Weber)
-the right to conduct foreign relations and sign treaties
Sovereignty and the UN
Internal sovereignty: policies in order to government , control over the population.
External sovereignty: recognition from the international system, whether can be a
member of an international organization
UN: constitution of the org,
It does not cancel the principle of sovereignty, but emphasizes it.
Institutionalizes the Westphalia system
-concept of sovereignty starts in Europe then spread around the world.
Some areas where sovereignty not completely settled
-where sovereignty (either internal or external) is contested one can expect troubles
ex: Quebec, Somalia, large part of Syria, Yugoslavia, Congo
-Contestation from the inside: failed states, and civil wars
-Contestation from the outside: no recognition
-Taiwan: though has a government, sovereignty not recognized by the