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Lecture 4

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Lilach Gilady

POL208 lecture 4 Hobbes: the anarchy=the state of nature (domestic analogy) the sate of nature: -a “war of every man against every man” -life is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short” ex: zombieland ( lec 3) anarchy: -domestic: leviathan, government, institution -international: anarchic, still state of nature anarchy not chaos!!! : zombieland, still rules in order to survive =order  lack of government war: predictable, rules WW1: les tranches =organized -Order/violence (doesn’t not exist all the time, but potential) -Law/lawless Implications: -survival; self-help; self interest; constant potential for violence; life is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short” -very limited potential for cooperation-unstable equilibrium – fear of defection -no leviathan= no room for moral considerations. Survival and self-interest are moral under anarchy, right to survive! These rights don’t exist in ir, because of the absence of the leviathan  Bismarck- Realpolitik -the politics of reality – politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations -conservative. Minimalist, militaristic (world a dangerous place- cautious) -“it doesn’t matter if a cat is black or whit, so long as it catches mice” (Deng Xiaoping); ‘unholy alliances’ The Security Dilemma -T1: constant fear and insecurity; “Because any state may at anytime use force, all states must constantly be ready either to counter force with force or to play the cost of weakness” (Waltz) -T2: Actor A: seeks t increase her security by buying weapons/building a defensive wall/gaining allies -T2: Actor B: fears A’s improved position- enhanced sense of insecurity -T3: Actor B: forced to invest in weapons/defensive means/allies -Outcomes: A and B are as insecure in T3 as they were in T1- only poorer; Arms race. -The dilemma: how can we increase our security without threatening others? Thucydides (5 century BC) Peloponnesian War (431-405 BC) The Melian Dialogue -Athens vs the people of Melos -“the standard of justice depends on the equality of power to compel and that in fact the strong do what they have to power to do and the weak accept what they have to accept.” State of nature: no room for ethical concerns -the Athenians “put to death all the grown men whom they took, and sold the women and children for slaves.” Modern realism: “International pol like all pol, is a struggle for power…whenever (statesmen and peoples) strive to realize they goal by means of international pol, they do so by striving for power” Hans J Morgenthau (politics among the nations 1948) Neorealism -Kenneth Waltz, Theory of International Politics, 1979 -How can we make the study of international politics more systematic and rigorous? -Do we need to theorize about human nature in order to understand politics? Hobbes state of nature: philosophical point of view Neorealism: -the implications of anarchy- the need to maximize security -anarchy is constant- it is what differentiates the international from the domestic -while anarchy is a constant-the distribution of power is not (only major powers really matters) -Under anarchy – different distributions of power lead to different patterns of behavior -to understand international politics we need to focus on the world system level of analysis Unipolarity -empire countries will start uniting in order to balance it (Rome) Bipolarity: USSR—USA Multipolarity -great Britain, France, Italy, ottoman empire, Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary  peuvent se separer: look bipolar Realism- Summary -IR is a objective field of study where events are governed by universal laws -the state is the most important actor and it is a rational and unitary actor -the international system is anarchic -states seek to maximize security/power; national interest -the distrib
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