POL208: March 11th 2013
Midterm structure: identical 4 out of 6 definitions, short essay, related to the readings, make arguments regarding that
reading, the only diff is that the longer essay will not be related to any films
-you will have to integrate several things from the several classes: take some examples from this week's lecture, last
week's, certain things.
-We want you to think, so they will ask questions that cut across the material: COMBINE DIFFERENT THEORIES,
-10 points for ID
-20 p for short question
-and 30 points for the essay
--as examples you can use anything you want, not expected to see the movies, you can but you don't have to.
-Movie Today: Shaking hands with the devil: most troubling event in human right, critical of the role of the int.
-Form the news: Uhuru, President, recent elections in Kenya, Kenyata may or may not have been the winner, Uhuru
Kenyatta is one of the ppl who will have to face the ICC in the upcoming month, he participated in the killings of 1200
ppl after the elections last time
Falkland's Round II: The issue is again debated, Argentina is again showing displeasure at the fact that Britain owns the
-The ppl in the Fauklands should determine who they want to be under (says Britain, so they're claiming self-
-Argentina will bring up of history succession...who should get it? Well the Fauklands used to be part of Spain so we are
their successors :. we should have them.
-Can the ICJ (int. Court of Justice rule in this?) No b/c Britain doesn't want the ICJ to rule on the case.
Tragedy of the Commons
-Hardin's argument, how such a commons is always doomed, "freedom of the commons brings ruin to all" we do not
feel, see collective goods :. misuse the commons
-Common (Public Good): jointness of supply (once I provide a certain good to one individual it is applied to all, ex: \city
Park: you enjoy it so do others) and nonexclusiveness (everyone can use it non exclusive)
--if these 2 conditions are satisfied then it is a public good
--ex: free air, stable climate, security (Potentially), one the gov't provides the ppl w/ security everyone can enjoy, so we
cannot exclude ppl.
--public goods almost inevitably lead to a lot of free riders, this will lead to the tragedy of the commons
---this problem is often called the problem of collective actions (?)
--it's irrational to pay for it b/c everyone wants to free ride, eventually it will cease to exist or be destroyed
-Possible solutions: privatization, division to smaller numbers, selective incentives, institutions
--problem w/ this; not everything is easily divisible: how do you divide air, trees
--also there might be a value to public goods, ex: we want public transit, so we have corperations adopting the
stations, ex: union station provided t you by_________
--similar to pisoner's dilemma, if you have 1 roomate the probability that it will be clean is higher than 10, if it's not
your mess it's theirs:
--So if we have smaller groups we can monitor the groups better
-selective incentives: PBS: If you donate now we will give you this rare DVD
--you can still watch PBS for free but only the ppl that donate to the public good will get this "extra"
--ex: in Int. law, countries that join it first have more power, or ppl that donate more money to the IMF will have
voting right, this is a selective incentive.
--lastly we can think about creating institutions: we can introduce a guard so that no one will bring in more sheep.
--problem: who will pay the guard? The guard him/herself is a public good: institutions are a public good, we can get
to this endless loop where each solution is another problem, b/c they themselves can become a public good
----------------prisoners dilemma, problem of collective action, how to manage economy Problem of collective action Transnational Issues
-Not all env'tal issues stem from the 'commons' problem
-National boarders do not match natural boundaries: rivers, migrating species, ecosystems, etc
--some things do not have boarders: ex: geese that go from CA to US or if you have a polluted river that flows to
--for the movie:
--public goods are a problem, boundaries are a problem: But maybe we should think about it differently, not as
-movie: boundary issues: from the movie corporation
-some 'private goods' have far reaching externalities: rain forests, mineral reserves, fishing, etc
--CA has the oil sands, we should be able to use it how we want to h/w how we use it implicates everyone else
-fishing rights: but if we overfish!
-Externality: a term coined by economists. Externality occurs when a decision imposes costs or provides benefits other
than the person making the decision, it can also refer to unintended consequences of an activity
--ex: Prof's neighbour was playin amazing Grace on the Bag Pipe, for the Prof this was an externality
-Driving a car->pollution (this is an externality the pollution, so an externality might be positive or negative)
--we don't pay for the externality, so who should pay for that
--if a company produces pollution, who pays for it
-Economic solution: internalize the externalities
--force the individuals to think of the cost of the externality
--domestically we can create a carbon tax, h/w internationally we cannot do that, can't force ppl to pay for overfishing
The Club of Rome
--a group of ppl that determined to meet in Rome and determine, are their limits to growth, pop'n is growing,
pollution,... they wanted to use the most high tech dev't to determine this
Limits to Growth, 1972
--started issuing partial findings: we are finding these troubling findings and it is so severe that you need to change now
you can't wait till the book is published
-the main problem that they found that was so troubling was