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POL208Y1 (500)


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Political Science
Lilach Gilady

 Environment - Tragedy of the Commons – collective action - Externalities - The problem of enforcement under anarchy - Lifeboats vs. Spaceship Earth - Limits to growth/the problems of exponential growth Neo-Malthusianism - The environment in IR (Stockholm, Montreal vs. Kyoto)  Climate Change Game? - No single country is big enough to change the outcomes Other Countries 2 2 Canada Cut CO Keep CO Cut CO 2 Avoid Climate change environmental disaster 2 Keep CO Avoid Climate change environmental disaster  Sustainable Development Rio, 1992 - United Nations Conference on Environment and Development Earth Summit - Sustainable development: “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (the Brundtland report, 1987) - A North-South compromise – development vs. conservation; who should play? Neo-colonialism? - Is it an oxymoron? - The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (New York) - What does it mean in practice? (Recycling, renewable energy – is it enough?)  NGO’s - Environmental NGO’s start to play an important international role in the mid 1970’s - John Muir – the Sierra Club (1901) - Greenpeace – the Rainbow Warrior  1985 sunk by French agents  1987 France agrees to pay $8.16 million compensation to Greenpeace  Proactive; provocative; media savvy; non-compromising; environment should always come first - NGO’s receive an official status of active observers (Rio); can’t vote but allowed to have international voices – changing the nature of the international law - Critique; NGO’s have their own interest affected by the issues of resources and money  Human Rights NGO’s - NGO’s become prominent when the formal state system seems to be unable to deal with specific challenges  Human rights also challenge the state system - Amnesty International (1961) – letter writing; prisoners of conscience; 1977 Nobel Peace Prize; annual report; broadened agenda - Human Rights Watch (1978) started as the Helsinki Watch; since 1998 all ‘Watches” are united under the HRW - Why is this issue so problematic? ‘Sovereignty’  Mostly the relationship between the citizen and the government  Human Rights as Part of Foreign Policy - Should we include human rights in our calculations? - A moral argument - Legal obligations - The Liberal argument: what happens inside the state is mirrored in its foreign policy - A political/function argument: human rights violations – destabilization – intervention – conflict - There is no inherent contradiction between human rights and national interest  Why not have a Human Rights Policy - Westphalia 1648  Institution of sovereignty; trying to prevent other countries from intervening with the domestic affairs - Morgenthau: the autonomy of the political sphere - It distorts national interest - It is an impossible policy: too broad, ineffective, too expensive - What does such policy mean (regime change? Short-term intervention? ‘Humanitarian Social Work’? Development?) e.g. China, Afghanistan, Syria - It will lead to inevitable ‘hypocrisy’ - Nothing more than ‘Realpolitik’?  Human Rights and International Law - With so many violations of human rights - can we think of them as part of international law? - Natural law – universal  Life, liberty, property (Lo
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