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POL208 LEC 03 2013.docx

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Political Science
Lilach Gilady

Sovereignty and Anarchy POL208—Lecture 03 September 23 , 2013 UN General Assembly Biggest event of IR Example of international organization based on national membership Diplomacy Above the level of states Kenya A group of Somalis attacked Kenyan upscale mall About crossing borders A lot of times Somalia is referred to as a failed state It is lacking a clear government Event that happens when states collapse, below level of state Al Shabab; create havoc in other countries What is the classic understanding of what IR consists of? IR studies the relations between nations Interested only in nation states A world of nation states Division that has implications for the ways in which we view the world Without this division we wouldn’t have IR Taken the world and divided into clear territorial states The Thirty Years War 1618-1648 The political structure of Europe is quite complex After decline of Roman empire, period of mess Holy Roman Empire; emperor claims to be holy Connected to pope Religious leader of all Christains, Catholics Representative of God on Earth Holy Roman Empire was political rep of the pope Emporer has uniquie claim for authority Not just from military or economic power but authority comes from Pope; God Divine authority A lot of local leaders and kings and principalities and actors in Europe In practice they have lots of power But nominally live under umbrella of Holy Roman Empire Emperor can claim right to intervene in certain issues Nobody has soul authority over piece of land Pope, Emperor, local city, just a political mess Reformation; religious world becomes complicated Not only religious movement, it’s also political movement Negates the power of the Holy Roman Empire and emperor Declare Protestantism and you declare independence from Holy Roman Empire Cause of the couple of decades of wars Bohemia One of the ares that was really important for power HRE was Bohemia Empreror decides to appint Ferdnind aas suceesor Intensely catholic man Made everyone Protestant worried People don’t want to accept the rule of Ferdinand The Defenestration of Prague (1618) Ferdinand sends two envoys to Prague They get defenestrated; thrown out of window Protestants of Bohemia have them thrown out Beginning of the 30 years war Ferdinand wants everyone to know who’s in power, sends military The Price of War A devastating war Kills 1/3 of European population Why was it so deadly? Not using weapons of mass destruction, then what? Hunger; hard to sustain such a large army By the end, everyone’s exhausted Looking for system that allows them to make sure they don’t fight this kind of war again Better way to organizes European system Peace of Westphalia Ends the 30 years War Outlines borders that resemble today’s map Reffered to as the beginning of modern day IR Referred to as the starting point of IR system Still playing according to the rules that were set out by the end of 30 years war 1648; birthday of the Westphalian system Following a principle that was set in a treaty war earlier than 30 years war Was much-contested prior to 30 years war Cuius reigo, eius religio (1555) No one has the right to tell you what religion to choose Holy roman Empire loses based on this Takes away from the claim of HRE to set religion for everyone in Europe Takes away the ability of emprero to intervene in other kings and etc HRE can rule in Austro Hungary No longer have overlapping Sovereignty: What does it mean in practice? 4 components necessary for statehood; A people, a territory, a bureaucracy, the king as a legal entity Monopoly over functions of the state in a defined territory, excluding all external intervention Relies on assumption that state actor should have monopoly over legit use of force The right to conduct foreign relations and sign treaties Only a state can be a participant in IR Sovereign equality Treaty of Westphalia built around this concept All sovereign units are equal in their legal status HRE continues to exist but not better or different category than France, etc US may be powerful but not legally superior to Canada, etc. In practice, some are obviously more powerful but legal standing is same Soveriengty and the UN Internal soveriengty and external soveriengty Internl; gov t’s ability to actually hold this monopoly over force, issues within borders External sovereignty looks at recognition from the international system When we have oen and another we have trouble UN is international orgtanizaton People often think it’s an organization as trying to be supernational government But it is re emphasis the pricinple of sovereignty Maintains the idea that we have nation states as units Non internvention No other country can mess in your country Article 2/7 No right to intervene in domestic concerns of it’s members Equality Based on principle of soverign equality Article 2 Reflects this through general assembly, each country has one vote Contested Sovereignty In concept, was meant to help us prevent war Areas in which sovereignty is not completely settled Easy to suggest that where we have contested sovereignty, we have more conflict Example, Wagha Border, Pakistan - India Instead of fighting war, they stand and
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