Hierarchy on perceived threats. Many way to make sense of threats and their meanings.
1. Man Made vs. Natural Threats: environment is a man-made threat, traditionally
focussed on man-made threats, strategic threats. Try to put yourself in the shoes of
the perpetrator. Natural causes have no game of inference. Can’t protect. From this
first cut, you can infer a distinction between addressing threats and addressing
vulnerabilities. Two aspects of terrorism- the group and their weapons, the threat
itself, and addressing your own vulnerabilities regarding terrorism- border control,
critical infrastructure. Previously, the power of the Soviet Union was the risk- nuclear
proliferation, attack, accident. Overall threat of security was simple- well known,
addressed, only ambiguity was the advancement in technology. After 1979 this
2. a) Rapidly, the idea of nation vs. nation became obsolete. Security was defined
outside of this traditional distinction. Transnational actors. First terrorist group that
were active were in north Africa, moving from country to country. Moved from national
to transnational issue. Groups as problematic for security as states before.
b) Second evolution was the blurring of a classic line between internal and external
threats. Line became murky because groups were moving across borders with
ease. After 9/11, most focussed on internal threats. Ministry of Security became
most important for defining security measures.
c) Explosion of the level of analysis about security threats. The individual in some
instances became the number one focus of security issues. More and more this
became the number one criteria. Food security, safety, even in peace-keeping
practices. The citizen became paramount. The same happened for strict security
policy. Immigration as a security concern. The individual became the number one
3. All three of this signify the same phenomenon- globalisation. A disease in one
country can become a national security threat if it comes from an airport- travel of
people means threats travel faster. Global framework makes these more urgent.
Necessities come from crises. Crises mean government resources. Crisis assessed-
declaration, policy change, allocation of resources. Resource allocation. Crises are
either urgent . Crises lead national actors to revert back to egoist national solutions,
not knowing what’s going on. Where threats become visible, when it’s too late this
Containment- a limited policy. Vis-à-vis Iran- containment of the Iranian problem (the regime
and the potential nuclear proliferation). For a long time there was containment vis-à-vis Iraq.
After 9/11 this changed- became preventio