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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science

Lecture 3 Liberalism 05222013Chapter 6 Liberalism Tim DunneLiberals argue that power politics itself is the product of ideas and ideas can change even if the world has been inhospitable to liberalism this does not mean that it cannot be remade in its image4 pillars of liberalism 1 All citizens are juridically equal and possess certain basic rights to education access to a free press and religious toleration 2 Legislative assembly of the state possess only authority invested in it by the people without abuse of basic rights 3 Liberty of individual to own property 4 Most effective system of economic exchange is largely market driven and not one that is subordinate to bureaucratic regulation and controlLiberals see a further parallel between individuals and sovereign states although the character of states may differ all states are accorded certain natural rights such as the general right to noninterventionHistorical project of liberalism is domestication of the internationalLiberals agree with realists that war is a recurring feature of the anarchic system but anarchy is not necessarily the cause of warControversy of the split in liberalism its commitment to freedom in economic and social spheres leans towards a minimalist role for governing institutions and a democratic political culture required for basic freedoms needs to be safeguarded by robust and interventionist institutionsImages of liberalismPublic figure periodCauses of conflictDeterminants of peaceFirst image Human Richard Cobden mid Interventions by Individual liberty free thnature19 centurygovernments trade prosperity domestically and interdependenceinternationally disturbing the natural orderSecond image The Woodrow Wilson Undemocratic nature of National selfthstateearly 20 centuryinternational politics determination open especially foreign policy governments responsive to and the balance of public opinion collective powersecurityThird image The J A Hobson early The balance of power A world government with thstructure of the 20 centurysystempowers to mediate and systemenforce decisionsKant and Bentham were two leading liberals of the Enlightenment who reacted to the lawless state of savagery at the time were domestic politics held the key to a new age of rights citizenship and constitutionalismFor Kant the imperative to achieve perpetual peace required the transformation of individual consciousness republic constitutionalism and a federal contract between states to abolish war 2 elements of Kantian legacy restraint among liberal states and international imprudence in relations with nonliberal statesArgument against the existence of a democratic peace which states that liberal states will not start wars with other liberal states should the people govern the state and not a princeoHistory shows that the number of conflicts between nonliberal and liberal states is still largeoNot necessarily because of liberal nature of states that war is nonexistant but instead because of other ties to the state US and Canada Mexico and CubaBentham believed the solution was to establish a common tribunal so that the necessity for war no longer follows from a difference of opinion as seen through the American Confederation German Diet or Swiss LeaguethCobden belief that free trade would create a more peaceful world order is core of 19 century liberalismoTrade brings mutual gains to all however it brought disproportionate gains to hegemonic power as countries were at different stages of development and led to dominance and subservience thNatural harmony of interests the theory proposed by Kant and other liberals in the 19 century that actors have the mutual best interest to avoid waroThis was challenged from the Great War as Britain and Germany had highly interdependent economics and still went to war bringing the end to 3 empires as wellWWI shifted liberal thinking to that peace is not natural it has to be constructedWoodrow Wilson argued that peace could only be secured with the creation of an international organization to regulate international anarchy belief in collective securityCollective security refers to an arrangement where each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all and agrees to join in a collective response to aggressionoContrast with alliance system of security
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