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Introduction to IR L1.doc

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Political Science
Lilach Gilady

Introduction to IR - Lecture 1 January 10 th Office Hours: Wednesday 2:00-3:00 by appointment. SS# 3034 What’s Ahead? • IPE: International political economy • Islands of cooperation: institutions • Summary and looking forward The economy clearly matters – but how? When? What actors does it affect? How does the economy affect international relations? Political Economy • The interaction between economics and politics (polity and market) What is the role of the economy in IR? • It depends on whom you ask o A source of power (we need butter to buy guns) o A source of welfare (we like butter) • Prosperity as means vs. prosperity as a goal • Why do we want/need a strong economy? • Example: Chinese economic growth o Should we be worried? o Do they want a strong economy to ensure the welfare of their population or in order to take over the world? o Should we cooperate or consider them a threat? Guns vs. Butter • A common metaphor for the national production possibility frontier • “Guns will make us powerful; butter will only make us fat.” – Herman Goering • “We can do without butter, but, despite all our love of peace, not without arms. One cannot shoot with butter, but with guns.” - Joseph Goebbels • “Bomb them with butter” Guns vs. Butter PPF • PPF; production possibility frontierWar Economy • The trade off between guns and butter is most noticeable in times of war • Total war – sustainable over time? • Effects on morale • Effects on gender relations • Positive effects of wartime economy? Economic Warfare • How we can use the economy as an instrument of war; bomb them with butter • An intense, coercive disturbance of the economy of an adversary aimed at diminishing its power • Economic warfare can be waged separately from military warfare (sanctions) or in conjunction with an ongoing war (strategic bombing, siege, blockade etc.) • Submarine warfare in WWI and WWII; oil embargo on Japan; • International law separates between goods that are part of the war effort and those that are for civilian use. Dual use? • Mixed record; smart sanctions; specific sanctions to not harm the general population; success is questionable • Economic measures can be a carrot as well (encouraging incentives); MFN, WTO membership, foreign aid etc. How to Calculate the Cost of War? • Direct costs; tanks, planes, bombs, personnel, damaged infrastructure • This is not sufficient, we must look further • Indirect costs; higher oil prices, borrowing money, healthcare for veterans etc. • Opportunity costs • For the US: total economic impact for the war 2002-2008 $1.3 trillion (compared with $804 billion in direct war costs) • A $1 in indirect costs for every $1 in directs costs • Per family of four: $20,900 ($57 a week) How to Understand the Role of the Economy in IR? • Our view of the role of the economy depends on how we answer the following questions; • What is power? What is the main purpose of power? Is the economy then an instrument for gaining power or is power an instrument for an improved economy? (Human nature) • Wh
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