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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
La Haine

POL208Y1 Sept 29 2010 20 century E.H. Carr Ism Paradigm Twenty Years crisis- 1919-1939 WW1 Zombie-land : Through Experiment WW2 The different isms Coined the term realism What actors want? How do we deal Realism: places its emphasis on the with treat? acceptance of facts and on the analysis of their (causes and consequences) What kind of data do we need to Carr 1939 gather? Many rulers of that era were Is cooperation possible? Is there idealists possibility for change? Idealism vs Realism Realism : The Realist A Team See what they want see what they see Theoretical foundation of the paradigm Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679 Bismarck-Real Politick; German 19 century First translation of Thusydides from Peloponesian to English Politics on practical base > moral & ideological Teach new scientific ideas What should be < what is avoided Geology builds rules and laws ; thinking about moral questions teaches in Italy (formulate laws and what should be show how politics work) Conservative & Minimalists Goes back to England civil war expansionist militaristic People, Politics Minimalist? Goals are achievable, risks are counted on Leviathan (Hobbes) 1651 It doesnt matter if a cat is black of The State of Nature white so long as it catches mice- unethical or ethical doesnt matter Society with complete anarchy; Nature Deng Xiaopeng unholy alliances ex) The state of nature before society was formed ( no institution ) we dont care about conditions of other conditions How are peoples behaviours in the absence of institution? Power politics; actors following their self-interest A war of every man against every Citizens give up their man Everythings all about independence to buy stability surviving (nature) The Leviathan (The State) gets Life is solitary poor nasty brutish ultimate authority and a monopoly over the use of violence and short The solution is the creation of The Morality, Justice, Property are social constructs imposed by the Sate state and exists only so long as the The Logic of Hobbes argument : state is strong enough to impose them- they are tools for 1. Human Nature: Man is a selfish maintaining stability rather than hedonist of the voluntary acts of inherent rights every man, the object is some good to Law is dependent on power. himself Legal Positivism Hedonist? Pursuit of or devotion to pleasure, -Formal criteria of laws origin, law especially to the pleasures of the senses. enforcement and legal effectiveness are all All people are equal, rational and sufficient for social norms to be considered possessing a passionate love of law. Legal positivism does not base law on survival ( Right of Nature ) divine commandments, reason, or human rights. As an historical matter, positivism Love for survival is the only right of arose in opposition to classicalnatural law human being in the state of nature; The only right that really exists theor, according to which there are necessary moral constraints on the content A persons right of nature justifies of law. violence against everyone else Justice is whatever the law says it is In the interests of personal survival, people will come around to An unjust law is an oxymoron agreeing that they should renounce their right to use violence Bull: the Domestic Analogy- the state exists in the state ofnature Is his a good solution? No ** Anarchy doesnt mean chaos !! UNSTABLE equilibrium, the moment one party deviates from their Anarchy refers to the absence of promise, all will deviate and war government. restarts The Logic of Hobbes argument If one says international system is there is anarchy, there is no legitimate use of 2. The creation of Leviathan power no superpower exists in enforces stability international context
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