Sept 10; Introduction to International Relations
- July 1, 1916; for 6 days, 1.6 million shells fell on the German trenches (Battle of the Somme)
- Idea was that after the bombardment, nothing will be able to survive and the attack can begin
- British dug tunnels under German trenches; British and French troops marched into German trenches but
most Germans survived.
- More than 19000 British soldiers were dead; 57000 casualties in total
- Want to scientifically study to make sure that war never happens again
Levels of Analysis
- Systematic organization of facts
- J David Singer (1950)
- Russett, Starr & Kinsella: individual, decision makers, government structure, society, international relations,
- How can we judge which level matters most?
o Thought experiment (Counterfactuals)
If this fact was different, would it have altered the outcome? (Ex. If a driver was a different
person; if we had a different leader; if a system with 3 leaders has the same outcome with 2
leaders, then maybe it’s not the role of the system)
Hiroshima, August 6, 1945
- Trumann came from a poorer background (individual level)
- Generals, diplomats, military personnel (group of decision makers)
- USA is a presidential democracy; intolerant towards lots of casualties
- Interaction between USA and Japan; Japan didn’t even declare war on USA; the type of regime in Japan
- USA wanted to demonstrate its power so nobody messed with them again; demonstrate to Soviet Union (rising
- In a bipolar system, every little country counts. If you win, I lose.
Levels of analysis-summary
- Choice of level of analysis depends on: question we ask; the case; our theoretical assumptions and preferences
- Levels of analysis are not mutually exclusive-they capture different parts of the story
- We need to be able to justify our choice (by using counterfactuals)
- Levels of analysis are not a theory but the choice often involves theoretical assumptions
What is a theory?
- A description
o What is it that